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Super Soap Investigation

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Introduction

Super Soap In order to perform the experiment of finding the concentration of sodium hydroxide, I will have to find out how much hydrochloric acid is needed to neutralise the sodium hydroxide. Neutralisation is the reaction which takes place in an acid and an alkali to form a salt and water. The equation for neutralisation is: Acid + Alkali --> Salt + Water Neutralisation can also be seen in the terms of ions: H+ + OH- --> H2O Neutralisation happens in every day life such as the treatment of indigestion. If you have eaten too much acidic food then an alkaline substance would be consumed to neutralise the acid which is causing pain or irritation. The neutralisation formula which takes place in the formula of "Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid --> Sodium Chloride + Water" only takes place between the sodium and the hydrochloric acid. These react to form the salt sodium chloride. The other products, hydroxide and the hydrogen in the hydrochloric acid are just known as "spectators". These just happen to come together as water as a result of the other product's neutralisation reaction. The equation for finding the concentration is: Concentration = Number of moles Volume NaOH + HCl --> NaCl + H2O I already have the volume of the sodium hydroxide and the concentration of the acid so to find out the ...read more.

Middle

5. Use the pipette to put 25cm3 of sodium hydroxide into the conical flask and label it. 6. Use a funnel to put 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid into the burette. 7. Carefully put five drops of phenolphthalein into the conical flask with the sodium hydroxide. 8. Slowly start to release hydrochloric acid from the burette by turning the tap and into the conical flask now containing sodium hydroxide and the indicator. 9. Note the colour change of the indicator at the point of neutralisation. Pre-Test Results When indicator was added to the sodium hydroxide, the solution changed from colourless to pink. When 43cm3 of hydrochloric acid was released into the sodium hydroxide and indicator, the solution turned from pink to colourless again. By the solution turning colourless again, this shows that the solution is now neutralised. Plan I will have to follow some sort of method to try and perform the experiment in order to obtain the highest standards of accuracy and reliability. 1. Firstly follow out all safety regulations as stated earlier. 2. Collect all of the apparatus listed. 3. Use distilled water to clean out all of the apparatus because there may be ions left in the burette or pipette as the distilled water is deionised so there will be no ions there for the hydroxide to react with. ...read more.

Conclusion

You can notice how the titre gets smaller as my reactions get quicker. When I conducted the experiment, I think it was reliable because, as I mentioned before, my end results were very similar and close together. They were 36.7, 36.7 and 36.6. Although my results at the end were reliable, there may have been errors in the experiment which could have made it unreliable. When I rinsed out the conical flask with water, the water droplets which may have still been in the flask when the sodium hydroxide was added could have affected its concentration by diluting it. This would then have affected the volume of concentration of hydrochloric acid it took to neutralise the sodium hydroxide. To solve this problem I should have wiped the conical flask thoroughly with a paper towel this would have ensured that no water droplets would be contained in the flask. Another thing that could have affected the results was my own reactions when it came to turning off the tap of the burette to stop the hydrochloric acid coming out. There is not a great deal that I would be able to do about that to improve it apart from carrying out the experiment numerous times to try and get my fastest reactions possible. I could have also recorded the results to two decimal places instead of one to improve the accuracy of the experiment. ...read more.

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