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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Science
  • Essay length: 1196 words

test for anions present in various salts.

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

CHEMICAL TESTING FOR ANIONS INTRODUCTION; In this investigation we are going to test for anions present in various salts. Such as we have known, the charged particles are called ions. Positive ions are called cations because they travel towards the cathode, such as: aluminum, ammonium, calcium, copper, iron (II), iron (III); Negative ions are called anions because they travel towards the anode, such as: carbonate, chloride, iodide, nitrate, sulphate. Anions - the Negative ions are called anions because they travel towards the anode. Sulphate ions and nitrate ions are very difficult to discharge. When solutions of sulphates and nitrates are electrolyzed, hydroxide ions are discharged instead, and oxygen is evolved.Cations are the charged particles that contain positive ions and anion are the charged particles that contain negative ions. In this experiment, we are going to use the tests of anions of various metals slats Potassium chloride, Iron chloride, Sodium sulphate Calcium carbonate and Lead carbonate. AIM - To identify anions present in various salts by chemical testing. APPARATUS: * Spatula * Test tubes * Test tube racks * Distilled water * Pipette * Hydrochloric acid * Barium chloride * Silver nitrate solution * Calcium carbonate * Lead carbonate * Potassium chloride *

Middle

A precipitate is formed no Dissolved with the solution Iron chloride FeCL It dissolved did not fizz White precipitate No No reaction Sodium sulphate no no Bubbles formed. It Dissolved White precipitate formed Calcium carbonate Cloudy white precipitate White precipitate Bubbles, white precipitate White precipitate Lead carbonate Fizzed White precipitate fizz White precipitate Tap water No fizz White precipitate No fizz No reaction CONCLUSION From the result I can inform that - The salts that gave white precipitate when the acids were inserted (silver nitrate and nitric acid) there were the metal chlorides and carbonates. The sodium sulphate reacting with hydrochloric acid and barium chloride produced a white precipitate, informing us that there are negative ions present in this salt. The lead carbonate reacted with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid producing bubbles which indicates that a gas was given off. When the salts were added to silver nitrate they all generally produced precipitates informing that they were insoluble suspensions. * From my results I discovered that when the chlorides, both metals potassium chloride and iron chloride were inserted in the solution of nitric acid followed by a few drops of silver nitrate a precipitate was formed.

Conclusion

further more if any salt or test was carried out to identify the anions present , if hydrochloric acid or nitric acid were inserted into it and the solution formed bubbles/fizzed, then the negative ion present here will be carbonate. Thus the salt will then have a carbonate anion present in it. When carrying out experiments to see which negative ion is present, if the mixture fizzes when nitric acid or hydrochloric acid is inserted then you can automatically identify it has a carbonate ion present. EVALUATION In this experiment I have achieved my aim in identifying anions present in several salts. My experiment could have improved if I had followed the procedure much better. I had difficulty in this experiment in realising the reactions taking place in the test tubes I overcame this problem by focusing carefully and consulting with my partner in the reactions occurring. I have learnt that when an atom absorbs light or when an atom bonds an electron can be gained or lost and what is left is an ion. If the ion gains an electron it has become a negative ion and if it looses an ion it becomes a positive ion. This is because the balance of the electrons protons is distributed.

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