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Test the affect of concentration of sodium Thiosulphate on the rate it’s of reaction with hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Background Information Rates of Reaction; The rate of reaction is the rate at which two substances react with each other. These are the variables affecting rates of reaction- * The concentration of the reactants, the more concentrated the shorter the time it takes to react, as there are more particles to react. * The surface area of the reactants, the larger the surface area the shorter the time it takes to react as there are more particles that the other reactants have contact with. Only the particles on the surface can react, if more are exposed more can react in the same period of time. * In a gas reaction if you increase the pressure the rate of reaction is increased because there are more particles to the same volume. * The higher the temperature of the reactants the shorter the time taken to react because particles gain more energy and move around more (see collision theory) and therefore collide more often with other particles. * Catalysts- a catalyst increases the rate of reaction. Collision theory; All these variables affects on rates of reaction are true because of collision theory. Substances can only react when their particles collide, the faster they move or the more of them there are increases the number of collisions and increases the number of reactions in a certain time, reducing the reaction time. ...read more.

Middle

Time how long it takes until you can no longer see the cross through the bottom of the flask (because of Sulphur forming on the bottom of the flask). 4. Repeat steps 1-3 twice more for 0.1M sodium thiosulphate Repeat steps 1-4 for the other four concentrations. Equipment List; * Measuring cylinders-one for hydrochloric acid, one for sodium thiosulphate * Flasks for sodium thiosulphate concentrations * Stop clock * Paper with cross on * Flask for reaction to take place in Prediction; I predict that the stronger the concentration the faster the rate of reaction. I think this will happen because there will be more thiosulphate particles to the same volume of solution in the 0.1M solution than in the 0.02M solution, therefore there will be a higher chance of collision and more collisions per second. See below- 0.08M Sodium Thiosulphate Solution (thio:water=4:1) Water particles: 10 Sodium thiosulphate particles: 40 Hydrochloric acid particles: 5 0.08M Sodium Thiosulphate Solution (thio:water=4:1) Water particles: 40 Sodium thiosulphate particles: 10 Hydrochloric acid particles: 5 I have also previously performed an experiment reacting magnesium with hydrochloric acid- Mg+2HCl?MgCl2+H2 I varied the concentration of the hydrochloric acid and my results showed the stronger the concentration of the acid the faster the rate of reaction Other Sources say; "The number of collisions per unit time can be expected to grow with the number of molecules of the reactants available" The University of Delaware "The more concentrated (the reactants) ...read more.

Conclusion

Firstly I could use a water level sensor like those found in washing machines. The computer is programmed to stop filling the container when it senses that the water has reached the level; Also I could use the weight of a liquid to determine its volume more accurately. The container is set on some electronic scales that are interfaced with a computer. The scales are set at zero with the flask on them, and then it is filled by a source controlled by the computer. When the computer senses through the scales that the container has a certain weight of liquid that it knows is the weight of the desired volume it shuts off the liquid source. Other experiments I could try- The affect of Temperature The reason I did not investigate the affect of temperature on rate of reaction was that it would be too difficult to control with a Bunsen burner and I would have had very inaccurate results. However, if I used a water bath to regulate the temperatures of the Sodium Thiosulphate this experiment would probably be quite successful. I would test it a 20 0C, 30 0C, 40 0C, 50 0C and 60 0C. I predict that an increase in temperature would cause an increase in rate of reaction, as the atomic particles would have more energy and move around faster, causing them to collide more often. ?? ?? ?? ?? How does the concentration of Thiosulphate affect the rate of reaction with Hydrochloric acid Esther Hubert 1 ...read more.

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