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Testing Salt Solutions to See What They Contain

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Introduction

Testing Salt Solutions to See What They Contain Aim To investigate five different salt solutions, using ion tests to find out what ions the solutions contain, and therefore what the salt solution is. Hypothesis I think that by using the following ion tests, I will be able to correctly identify the salt solutions. The ion tests that will be used are: "h Flame test "h Testing with NaOH(aq) "h Adding a little NO3 "h Adding a little NO3 and then a few drops of AgNo3 "h Adding a little HCl and then a few drops of BaCl----------2- Apparatus The apparatus that I will be using in this experiment include: "h Bunsen burner "h Heat proof mat "h Test tubes "h Test tube rack "h Test tube holder "h Wire on cork "h Spatula "h Red litmus paper The chemicals that I will be using in this experiment include: "h Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) "h Nitric Acid (NO3) "h Silver Nitrate (AgNo3) "h Barium Chloride (BaCl----------2) "h Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) "h Unknown crystals P "h Unknown crystals Q "h Unknown crystals R "h Unknown solution S "h Unknown solution T Fair Test To ensure that the experiment is a fair test, before each test the test tubes should be fully washed so that any previous ions ...read more.

Middle

Add a little Nitric Acid: If carbon dioxide is given off then you know that you have a carbonate. Add a little Nitric Acid and then some Silver Nitrate: If a precipitate is formed then you know that you have a Group 7 element present in the solution. If a white precipitate is formed then you know that Chloride ions are present in the salt solution. If a creamy white precipitate is formed then you know that Bromide ions are present in the salt solution. If a yellow precipitate is formed then you know that Iodide ions are present in the salt solution. Add a little Hydrochloric Acid and then some Barium Chloride: If a thick white precipitate is formed then you know that Sulphate ions are present in the salt solution. Test P Q R S T Start Appearance Creamy Crystals Green/blue crystals White Crystals Clear solution Transparent yellow solution Flame Lilac Dark Green Orange Light Green Orange Sparks NaOH No precipitate A thick blue precipitate was formed. No precipitate No precipitate Thick brown precipitate formed NO3 Nothing happened Gas given off Nothing happened Nothing happened Nothing happened Litmus Paper Stayed red Stayed red Turned purple Turned blue Stayed red AgNO3 Creamy precipitate formed No precipitate Creamy precipitate formed White precipitate formed White precipitate ...read more.

Conclusion

When adding Sodium Hydroxide to the solution, the solution immediately formed a very thick brown precipitate which gave strong indication that the solution contained Iron (III) ions. When adding Nitric Acid to the solution, to test for Carbonate ions, nothing happened so I went onto the next test which was to add Silver Nitrate and Nitric Acid. Being as nothing had happened when I had added just Nitric Acid, I added some Silver Nitrate to that same test tube. This produced a white precipitate to indicate that the solution contained Chloride ions. From all of these tests I concluded that the salt must be Iron (III) Chloride or FeCl3. Evaluation This experiment could be made better by ensuring that the white, creamy white and yellow precipitates for the Nitric Acid and Silver Nitrate test are the right colour. This could involve colour charts to ensure that you do not mistake creamy white for white. Further experiment that could be carried out as an extension from this one could be to test further salt solutions to discover what they are, or you could test more complex salts to see what ions are present in them. This could also include other further experimentation to see if other elements cause different results for any of the tests, or to see if any other tests give accurate results. ...read more.

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