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The action of enzymes.

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Introduction

The Action of Enzymes Aryana Masoudi 11F Background Information: Enzymes are proteins that are chemicals that dissolve and break down food. They help speed up the rate of which food can be digested in our bodies. Without enzymes food will take forever to digest, but as they are highly specific catalysts that mean that they can break larger molecules faster then if they were not there at all. Although enzymes are very useful to our bodies they can become useless in extreme conditions as they become denatured, and lose the intricate structure so that they can no longer break down any substrates. Enzymes being catalysts mean that they don't get used up in the reaction and so can continue to break down any substrates. Enzymes break down substrates by using the lock and key theory. The lock and key theory is a simple way of describing how specific an enzyme is for a substrate. Just like a lock requires a specifically shaped key for it work so does an enzyme. Each enzyme has an active site, which is where the enzyme can bind to the substrate on which it can perform some chemical reaction. ...read more.

Middle

I also predict that the rate of reaction will double after every 10�c. the reason that I predict this is because of the Q10 theory. I also predict that the doubling will stop at roughly 40�c. By using the Q10 theory it means that we are able to predict the results that we are going to get up to and including 40�c. As is clear from the graph below that the optimum level of an enzyme is roughly 40�c Preliminary Experiment: Temperature of test tube (�c) Time taken to turn into negative (s) Repeat 20�c 450 420 30�c 150 300 35�c 240 270 40�c 240 50�c 120 60 60�c 210 300 70�c 180 210 80�c 300 270 It took on the first repeat 150 seconds for the starch to turn into a negative at a temperature of 30�c. Then on the second repeat it took 300 seconds for the starch to turn into a negative at a temperature of 30�c. After we saw the difference of the readings we decided to write down the results in intervals of 10 seconds, rather than 30 seconds so as to make sure that our results are more accurate. ...read more.

Conclusion

* The pH of the test tube will be kept the same so as to make it a fair test. * The concentration of both the substrate and enzyme will be kept the same. * The fact that we will not shake or stir the test-tube will be kept constant as this would make our results unreliable. Fair Test: The reason why we have a fair test is so to make the results as accurate as possible. The ways in which we shall keep it a fair test is to have 3 repetitions of each temperature. Also I shall clean out the apparatus used like the test tube and syringes so as to make sure that out results are not affected through contamination. Factor of rate of reaction: The factor that I have chosen to affect the rate of reaction of my experiment will be temperature. The reason for this is that it seems that there is less chance of human error making my results inaccurate. Safety During this experiment certain precautions must be made as we are dealing with water in excess of 70�C. The precautions taken were to wear safety goggles, so that our eyes can not get harmed or damaged as a result of a spillage. ...read more.

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