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The action of heat on a solid hydrogencarbonate

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Introduction

LAB REPORT The action of heat on a solid hydrogencarbonate Aim To determine the effectiveness of gravimetric and volumetric analysis by testing the action of heat on solid hydrogencarbonate Hypothesis In this experiment, solid A, which is a hydrogencarbonate, has two experiments performed on it: one is a gravimetric analysis while another is a volumetric analysis, and the accuracy of each of the experiments. Gravimetric analysis is defined as a quantitative chemical analysis done by weighing a sample of purified precipitate1. Volumetric analysis is a quantitative analysis using accurately measured titrated volumes of standard chemical solutions2. In the first part of the experiment in gravimetric analysis, the solid hydrogencarbonate is heated. The following reaction occurs: Hydrogen gas is given off and the solid hydrogencarbonate loses mass to form a carbonate. By finding the number of moles of HCO3- and CO32-, it is possible to find the ratio of the moles given, which should be roughly about 2 : 1. In the volumetric analysis, the solution of solid A is titrated using 0.1M of HCl. The ratio of moles of AHCO3 and HCl are calculated, which should be roughly about 1:1 ratio. Similarly, the solid B, which is the residue of solid A in the gravimetric experiment, is titrated with HCl, and the ratio of moles is calculated again, which should be about 1:2. ...read more.

Middle

A and place it into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask - Fill up the flask up to the 250 cm3 mark with distilled water - Shake the flask thoroughly until all of the solid A has been mixed - To test if the hydrochloric acid is indeed 0.1M, a standardisation experiment must be carried out: * Fill up a burette with hydrochloric acid * Take about 25 cm3 of 0.1M sodium hydroxide in a beaker * Add a few drops of methyl orange indicator to the beaker * Titrate the solution with the HCl and record the HCl reading - Titrate 25.0 cm3 portions of this solution with 0.1M hydrochloric acid - Repeat the titration experiment three times and note down the HCl reading Experiment 3 - Place about 2.5 g of the solid residue B in a volumetric flask - Fill up the flask up to the 250 cm3 mark with distilled water - Shake the flask thoroughly until all of the solid A has been mixed - Titrate 25.0 cm3 portions of this solution with 0.1M hydrochloric acid - Repeat the titration experiment three times and note down the HCl reading Data Collection Experiment 1 Before heating Mass of empty crucible / g � 0.005 g 34.03 g Mass of solid A / g � 0.005 g 8.00 ...read more.

Conclusion

However, as volumetric analysis gave a smaller error than gravimetric, the results are more reliable than the one performed using gravimetric analysis, proving my hypothesis correct. The error might have been caused due to a number of reasons. For example, in the gravimetric analysis, the main cause of error could be heating the solid A for before it had stopped showed signs of mass change. It could also be that the mass was not measured properly on the mass balance. There is also a risk of slight spillage. In the volumetric analysis, the error could have been caused mostly by human error. The human eye could not have been able to record the colour change early enough to close the tap of the burette. The volumetric analysis still gave a more accurate result mainly due to the accuracy of the equipment such as burette. To reduce the error in the whole experiment, it could be performed a few times and an average could be taken. One could also trying using more accurate equipment than equipment such as mass balance. For further experiments, one could experiment with different types of hydrogencarbonate, or could also try using different types of analysis. One more type of analysis known is colorimetric analysis. ...read more.

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