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The aim is to investigate how the rate of reaction varies when the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is changed.

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Introduction

Chemistry coursework Planning. Aim: The aim is to investigate how the rate of reaction varies when the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is changed. Introduction: The rate of reaction is how quickly a chemical reaction happens. For a chemical reaction to take place particles must collide, this is called the collision theory. The more collisions between particles in a given time the faster the reaction. It is important for people in industry to know how quickly something will be made. The chemical reaction I will be investigating is between marble chips (chemically known as calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid. Symbol equation: CaCO3 + 2HCl �> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O Word equation: Calcium + Hydrochloric �> Calcium + Carbon + Water Carbonate acid chloride dioxide Prediction: I predict that the higher the concentration of the acid the quicker the rate of reaction will be. I predict this because I found in a book that the higher the concentration the more particles there are to collide and the acid particles only react with the marble chips when they collide. So the more particles there are to collide the quicker the reaction will happen. ...read more.

Middle

2. Set up equipment as shown: 3. Partly fill up the bucket with water. 4. Fill up the measuring cylinder with water. Place your hand over the top and carefully put it upside down into the bowl of water trying not to let any air into the cylinder. 5. Put the 2g marble chips in the conical flask. 6. Add the 25mls hydrochloric acid and immediately put the stopper on the flask and hit the timer. 7. After 3minutes measure the amount of CO2 collected in the measuring cylinder. 8. Repeat the test using the 5 different concentrations of acid *make sure you use 25mls of acid each time, keep the time to 3minutes, use 2grams of marble chips with roughly the same surface area each time and repeat each test 3 times all these factors will affect the results so they need to be kept accurate. Results table. Concentration of acid (M). Volume of CO2 (ml) produced in 3 minutes. 0.1 M 1.0 ml 3.0 ml 0.0 ml 0.5 M 10.6 ml 14.0 ml 12.0 ml 0.75M 25.2 ml 30.0 ml 22.2 ml 1M 64.0 ml 73.5 ml 88.0 ml 1.5M 90.0 ml 105.0 ml 95.0 ml Averages results table. ...read more.

Conclusion

This supports my scientific research. I found that for a reaction to take place you need particles to collide, this is called the collision theory. The more particles there are, the more collisions there are, which speeds up the rate of reaction. The higher the concentration of acid, the more particles there are in the same volume, there are more collisions, so the rate of reaction increases. I predicted that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid the more CO2 would be given off. My results prove my prediction correct. You can see as the concentration got higher the volume of CO2 increased with it. Evaluation. I am happy with my investigation overall. I only had one set of anomalies, which next time round I would avoid by making sure the concentration was correct and by making sure the temperature was the same, I would also make sure the marble chips were the correct weight. The rest of my results went very well and were accurate proving my prediction and scientific research correct. I felt I worked well, but next time I would give myself more time to double check everything to avoid more anomalies. I found in the end that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the volume of CO2 increased. ...read more.

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