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The aim is to see how the concentration of sodiumthiosulphate (Na2 S2 03) affects the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid (hcl) once it is diluted with water.

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction Aim: The aim is to see how the concentration of sodiumthiosulphate (Na2 S2 03) affects the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid (hcl) once it is diluted with water. Scientific Background: The reaction taking place in this experiment in a word and chemical equation is: Sodium-ThioSulphate + Hydrochloric Acid ---> Sodium Chloride + Water + Sulphur + Sulphur dioxide Na2 S2 03 + 2HCL ---> 2Na Cl + H20 + S + S02 For a reaction to occur not only must particles collide with one and other but they must have enough energy so that original bonds are broken and new bonds formed. The energy needed to break a mole of bonds is known as bond energy. If the collision has insufficient energy no reaction occurs. The more successful collisions, the faster the reaction. Successful collisions depend on particles moving faster to increase the chance of colliding. Increasing the temperature means particles take in more energy causing faster movement and therefore more collisions. Heated particles both collide more often and also these collisions will have more energy so will be more likely to be successful. ...read more.

Middle

This is because it is near average of the results and therefore will give average results in the main experiment. Also this is an easier quantity to measure and would be more accurate than 6 or 7 ml. Method: Step 1 Gather all the apparatus. Step 2 Make sure all safety precautions are covered. Step 3 Draw a black cross on a piece of paper and place it under the cylinder/ Step 4 Measure out 5cm3 of HCL and put it in the cylinder. Step 5 Put in 25cm3 of sodiumthiosulphate. Step 6 Immediately start the stop clock and stop it when the cross is no longer visible. This measures how fast the sulphur is formed as a product of the reaction (Na2 S2 03+ 2HCL ---> 2Na Cl + H20 + S + S02). Work out the rate of reaction. Step 7 Repeat again but replace 2cm3 of sodiumthiosulphate with 2cm3 of water. Between each repetition wash the equipment thoroughly so the results will be accurate and will not be affected by extra chemicals. Step 8 Keep repeating with the same pattern until there is no sodiumthiosulphate in the reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also a water bath would be needed. I would predict that when higher amounts of heat were applied to the solution the faster the rate of the reaction would be. This is because more energy is applied and therefore the molecules would be 'propelled' and would break the bonds faster, with more force, and consequently all the bonds would be broken faster. Precautions would be to make sure that the substance didn't boil and leave deposits in the conical flask. The method would be as follows: Step 1: Gather all the apparatus. Step 2: Make sure all safety points are covered. Step 3: Measure the rate of reaction at room temperature. Step 4: Then use a water bath to raise the temperature. This will maintain the temperature of the solution. Step 5: Put the conical flask in icy water so the temperature decreases to 5 degrees and then measure the rate of reaction. Step 5: Put the conical flask in icy water so the temperature decreases to 5 degrees and then measure the rate of reaction. In this experiment I would not judge the time by when the cross disappears as this is inaccurate so I will measure the volume of gas produced using a graduated syringe. . ADRIAN BLISS RATE OF REACTION DR RIHAL ...read more.

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