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The aim of my experiment is to find out how temperature affects the rate of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

RATES OF REACTIONS INVESTIGATION Planning The aim of my experiment is to find out how temperature affects the rate of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid. I will be investigating what changes I will see to the speed of reaction when I increase the temperature of the solution. You can get very quick reactions or very slow ones. Quick chemical reactions such as explosions, and others such as rusting occur very slowly. There are many factors, which affect the rate of reaction, such as concentration and pressure, temperature, adding a catalyst, surface area/particle size and light. My experiment will be based on how temperature affects the rate of reaction. Changes in temperature change the kinetic energy of the particles and hence the numbers of successful collisions with enough energy to break existing bonds and make product parties. When the temperature increases, the particles move around a lot more quickly and so there is a greater chance that the particles will collide with others, and react. Two theories that I will be looking at are the kinetic theory, and the collision theory. I will be looking at these theories because they affect temperature and the rate of reaction. The kinetic theory tells us that the movement of particles increases, so the speed that they travel at grows as the temperature around them increases. Increasing the temperature increases the energy between the particles and makes them move around a lot more and collide more often. The collisions theory is where react particles must collide with enough energy to break existing bonds and with the correct orientation to bring reactive sites close together. ...read more.

Middle

That's fifteen different results altogether for the temperatures and not including the average results or the results that I made from the five primary results that I record. These are the results, which I got from my first experiment as you can see by looking at the table; we added 10ml of sodium thiosulphate, 10ml of hydrochloric acid, and 15ml of water. You can see by looking at the below table that as you move down it (temperature increases) the time taken, for the solution to go cloudy, decreases. You can also see that when you increase the temperature by 10?C, the time taken reduces at a steady rate. Temperature (?C) Na2S2O3 (Ml) H2O (Ml) HCL (Ml) Time Taken (Secs) 10 10 15 10 350 20 10 15 10 184 30 10 15 10 92 40 10 15 10 41 50 10 15 10 29 These are the results for the second experiment and as you can see the sodium thiosulphate, water, and hydrochloric acid are all kept the same. You also get similar results in the experiment and therefore a similar pattern in the results but you can see an irregularity. In the last test for this experiment, where we had done the test at a temperature of 50?C, the result has gone wrong, there is an anomalous result. The time at which it should have taken to go cloudy is longer than it should have been. The amount of time it should have taken was about 20-30 seconds, but it had taken 56 seconds, which is longer than it had taken it 40?C. ...read more.

Conclusion

I believe that I did get a suitable range of results for this experiment. I recorded results from temperatures that ranged from 10?C to 50? C and I think that this is a very good range to see how temperature affects the rate of reaction. However, I feel that this also reduces the chance of knowing if anything changes if the temperature reaches a certain point. Perhaps doing the temperature even higher would enhance my results but this is also quite dangerous so I cannot really say that I could have improved the range of my results. Some other areas in the experiment that I feel I could have improved on were factors like controlling the stopwatch and measuring the amount of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. There is lots of room for human error here. However the inaccuracies due to them were negligible because I paid close attention to these during the experiment. I could have improved the experiment dramatically if I had access to better equipment. If we could connect the equipment up to a computer we could use data logging, which will get us very precise and accurate results. We could have also got a better conclusion if we had done the experiment a few more times because then we will have very hard evidence, and can get better averages. Overall, this investigation has been a very successful one. I feel my results and analysis have been as accurate and reliable as they could have been under the time allocated. However I feel with extra time, I could have repeated the experiment and made it even more accurate and adapted it to try other variables i.e. concentration or adding a catalyst. These are the ways that I could expand on the original question. ...read more.

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