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The aim of my experiment is to see how temperature affects the reaction rate of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate diluted with distilled water (these two substances make up 25cm3) and 5cm3 of hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Nicholas Marshall 11A Aim- The aim of my experiment is to see how temperature affects the reaction rate of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate diluted with distilled water (these two substances make up 25cm3) and 5cm3 of hydrochloric acid. Plan- Outline- Basically within this experiment I will see how changing only the temperature affects the reaction rate of 25cm3 sodium thiosulphate and distilled water (the distilled water and sodium thiosulphate make up 25cm3 - the distilled water dilutes the sodium thiosulphate) and 5cm3 of 2M hydrochloric acid. I will take down results of the reaction rate after I change each temperature and then make graphs for analysis and then conclude. When working with these kinds of chemicals I have to take precautions so glasses and gloves will be worn as protection against them. Scientific knowledge- The scientific knowledge shown here will be used to make my procedure. Since this is proven information, by basing my experiment on this knowledge it will be more accurate and reliable. Reaction- A reaction occurs when two molecules hit each other. When they collide the two molecules 'change partners'. But it's not just a matter of hitting each other 2 other factors are involved. Each different reaction needs different amounts of energy to break the bonds between the particles (this energy comes from the movement of the particles- kinetic energy). This specific amount of energy is called the 'activation energy'. The other factor is whether the collision is head on or just a glancing blow. A reaction will only occur with a head on collision. Concentration- A concentration of a chemical basically means the amount of its own particles there are in a mixture of itself and something else. So the higher the concentration of a substance the more particles there are of it and the lower the concentration the fewer particles there are. This therefore affects the reaction rate because a higher concentration means that there are more particles to react with. ...read more.

Middle

If you did it on your own you would be concentrating on more than one thing and you may start or finish the time wrong. The only thing that I can say about the measurements is that I will measure it to the exact value for every test. I will also use smaller measuring cylinders if I am measuring smaller quantities, this way I will get more accurate readings. In this way I will also get the right concentration as well. I will also never mix up the measuring cylinders as any remains of a chemical from a previous experiment may mix and cause an early reaction, ruining that test. It also applies to the thermometer; I will never take temperature readings from both chemicals, I will always stick to one chemical to take the temperature of. When washing out the flask I will make sure it is all washed out, as any previous chemicals will ruin the next test. When timing the room temperature test I will leave the flask for a couple of minutes before starting the test as there may be a temperature left from the water that I washed the flask out with. Once the flask has reached room temperature I will continue with the test. I will mention here that for the two substance particles to collide they need to be sufficiently mixed but if I wait for them to mix then the temperature will have gone and I also wouldn't be able to tell when they have mixed well enough for me to time. I will therefore just start timing as soon as the acid first hits the sodium thiosulphate. I know that this will distort the results as the temperature varies the time it takes for the chemicals to mix but if I make all the repeats constant in timing then I will get an accurate average. ...read more.

Conclusion

The main thing is that the heat can be lost when doing the experiment. As you take out the flask and measuring cylinder it immediately starts to lose heat and as you go on through the test it loses heat continuously. So that is something that distorts the results. It is particularly so for high temperature tests as they would have lost heat quicker in the comparatively cold room temperature. Changes to make?- If I were to do this test again I would change the method so that instead of having to take out the flask I would leave it in there and have a cross within the water bath of which to place the conical flask over. Maybe the cross could just be a laminated piece of paper with a cross drawn on it, in that way the paper wouldn't be affected. Is my conclusion firmly proved by my results?- Considering the flaws of my method, which is mentioned above, I think that probably my conclusion isn't very firm. But then I look at how well my results fit in with my line of best fit and see that the conclusion must be firm. It doesn't particularly matter, as my results were firm enough to produce a conclusion that proved my prediction to be right. Further work?- If I were to do further work I would either try out my new changes that were mentioned above and perhaps increase the range of my temperature to make my pattern even more clearer and more accurate. This would prove my conclusion further. Otherwise I would try out some more factors involved within this experiment. Instead of changing the temperature I could change other factors like the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate or the amount of acid added. Overall though I think that this was a very successful experiment and that I have managed to gain and analyse some useful results that told, explained and answered me a lot. I have also set myself some more questions for me to answer in any other extra experiments that I may do in the future. 1/10 ...read more.

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