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# The aim of my experiment is to see what factors affect electromagnetism the most so as to give the best electromagnet in an experiment.

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Introduction

Nicholas Marshall 10A Monday 1st July 2002 Physics Coursework- Electromagnetism Aim- The aim of my experiment is to see what factors affect electromagnetism the most so as to give the best electromagnet in an experiment. The factors I will use are: the number of coil wraps around the iron nail and the amount of current in the circuit. It is these factors that I will use to see which one gives the best electromagnet. Scientific Knowledge- How to get an electromagnet- When an electric current flows through a coil of wire it sets up a magnetic influence or 'field' around the wire. The more turns of wire there are in the coil and the bigger the current, the stronger this magnetic field will be. An easy way to wind the wire is around an object and a winding like this is called a solenoid; if now an iron core is put through the hole in the coil it will become an electromagnet when a current is sent through the wire around it. The reason for using iron is that it concentrates and strengthens the magnetic field. An Electromagnet in Electron Terms- This part is quite simple. A current is made up of electrons, so when you say a current flows you could also say when electrons flow. So if a current creates a magnetic field then the electrons also create a magnetic field. So the flow of electrons gives a magnetic field, which in turn creates the electromagnet. So the electromagnet can be traced directly back to the electrons within a wire. Magnetic Field- If one considers the circular magnetic field round each short length of wire in the flat circular coil, it can be seen that the field adds up through the centre of the coil. This leads to a strong field through the coil but a weak one outside it (see diagrams). ...read more.

Middle

Results- The experiment where the coil wraps vary- In this experiment I used the number of coils as a variable, everything else should stay constant. First set of results Number of coil wraps Current (Amps) Number of paperclips Mass (grams) of paperclips 5 0.41 0 0 10 0.41 0 0 15 0.41 2 0.4 20 0.41 4 0.81 25 0.41 9 1.84 30 0.41 14 2.81 35 0.41 16 3.23 Second set of results Number of coil wraps Current (Amps) Number of paperclips Mass (grams) of paperclips 5 0.41 0 0 10 0.41 0 0 15 0.41 2 0.4 20 0.41 6 1.22 25 0.41 9 1.63 30 0.41 12 2.46 35 0.41 16 3.21 Average set of results Number of coil wraps Current (Amps) Number of paperclips Mass (grams) of paperclips 5 0.41 0 0 10 0.41 0 0 15 0.41 2 0.4 20 0.41 5 1.01 25 0.41 9 1.83 30 0.41 13 2.66 35 0.41 16 3.23 The experiment where the current varies- This was the experiment where the number of amps changed and everything else kept constant. It also included the variable resistor. First set of results Number of coil wraps Current (Amps) Number of paperclips Mass (grams) of paperclips 20 0.10 1 0.46 20 1.00 14 2.19 20 2.00 24 4.83 20 3.00 33 6.57 20 3.60 43 8.63 Second set of results Number of coil wraps Current (Amps) Number of paperclips Mass (grams) of paperclips 20 0.10 3 0.46 20 1.00 12 2.19 20 2.00 24 4.83 20 3.00 33 6.57 20 3.60 45 8.99 Average set of results Number of coil wraps Current (Amps) Number of paperclips Mass (grams) of paperclips 20 0.10 2 0.46 20 1.00 13 2.59 20 2.00 24 4.83 20 3.00 33 6.57 20 3.60 44 8.81 Results - Graphs- These graphs, as I have said before, will be based on the two third tables from the experiments because they are more accurate as they are average results of the two tables before it. ...read more.

Conclusion

The obvious thing to do to prove the conclusion of my aim even further is to take more variables into my experiment and see whether or not the current stays the best way to increase the magnetism in an electromagnet. The variables might include the thickness of the wire and the material of the nail. The thickness of the wire would be a good variable because it could also affects the amount of electrons in the wire as the wire could hold more in it after each coil wrap. My prediction would be; because the wire is thicker more electrons are let through which would increase the magnetism so as the thickness of the wire increases so does the magnetism. To include it in an experiment all other variable would have to stay constant (the number of coils, current etc.) and then different sets of wire with varying thickness would be wrapped around the wire and the results recorded. The nail is also a good variable because the nail is a main part of the electromagnet and its material affects the magnetic field that is induced into it. My prediction for this variable is; the different types of material will affect the amount of the magnetic field induced into it. I predict that the materials that conduct more (heat and electricity) will create a better electromagnet as it's conducting more of the magnetic field through it. If an experiment was to be done on this then all other variables would have to stay constant and only the nail would be replaced. On every test the nail would be replaced with a new material and its results recorded. Overall though I think that this was a very successful experiment and that I have managed to gain and analyse some useful results that told, explained and answered me a lot. I have also set myself some more questions for me to answer in any other extra experiments that I may do in the future. 1 ...read more.

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