• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18

The aim of my investigation was to determine how limiting factors would affect the rate of photosynthesis in a plant.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Photosynthesis Aim: The aim of my investigation was to determine how limiting factors would affect the rate of photosynthesis in a plant. It all begins at the bottom of the food chain with green plants being the producers. All the food in the world is made by plants; they use energy in sunlight to make food. This process is called photosynthesis. Plants need two chemicals to make this food- one is water which they get from the soil. The other is carbon dioxide which thy get from the air. They also need sunlight energy which is used to make the water and carbon dioxide react together. Water and carbon dioxide are ignorant substances (not made by living things). They usually have molecules. These three things are sometimes called raw materials. The reaction between the two chemicals (using sunlight) produces two new substances- glucose and water. Glucose is an organic substance (made by all living things) which usually have large molecules. The energy you get from glucose was once sunlight energy and somewhere in the world a plant converted it into chemical energy which your body can now use. Plants are living food factories. The production of glucose and oxygen can be written as a word equation; SUNLIGHT WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE --> GLUCOSE + OXYGEN ENERGY The balanced molecular equation for this is; SUNLIGHT 6H2O (1) + 6CO2 (G) --> C6H12O6 (AQ) + 6O2 (G) ENERGY All plants are green, the green color is chlorophyll. It is a very important substance, without it photosynthesis couldn't happen. Chlorophyll is a complex molecule which is imbedded in the thylakoids membrane which absorbs light. The thylakoids membrane is found in the chloroplasts. These molecules are the most important pigments for absorbing the light energy used in photosynthesis. A chlorophyll molecule has a hydrophobic 'tail' that embeds the molecule into the thylakoid membrane. The hydrophobic tail is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen based molecules. ...read more.

Middle

Plants decrease the amount of water that evaporates by keeping their stomates closed during hot, dry weather. Unfortunately, this means that once the CO2 in their leaves reaches a low level, they must stop doing photosynthesis. Even if there is a small portion of CO2 left, the enzymes used to transfer it into the Calvin cycle don't have enough CO2 to use. Grass in our gardens just turns brown and goes dormant. Some plants like crabgrass, corn, and sugar cane have a special modification to conserve water. These plants capture CO2 in a different way: they do an extra step first, before doing the Calvin cycle. These plants have a special enzyme that can work better, even at very low CO2 levels, to capture CO2 and turn it first into oxaloacetate, which contains four carbons. Thus, these plants are called C4 plants. The CO2 is then released from the oxaloacetate and put into the Calvin cycle. This is why crabgrass can stay green and keep growing when all the rest of your grass is dried up and brown. There is another strategy to cope with very hot, dry, desert weather and conserve water. Some plants (for example, cacti and pineapple) that live in extremely hot, dry areas like deserts, can only safely open their stomata's at night when the weather is cool. Thus, there is no chance for them to get the CO2 needed for the dark reaction during the daytime. At night when they can open their stomata's and take in CO2, these plants incorporate the CO2 into various organic compounds to store it. In the daytime, when the light reaction is occurring and ATP is available (but the stomata's must remain closed), they take the CO2 from these organic compounds and put it into the Calvin cycle. These plants are called CAM plants, which stands for crassulacean acid metabolism after the plant family, Crassulaceae (which includes the garden plant Sedum) ...read more.

Conclusion

This would have had a very marginal effect on my results as a whole, but eliminate this problem completely, it would have been necessary to perform the experiment in a totally dark room. A further inaccuracy was in the heat generated by the lamp. As I have previously described, a temperature change could seriously alter and produce inaccurate results. Furthermore as shown in the results table the temperature varied from 19�c to 23�c. The amount of oxygen produced in each try could have been inaccurate. One way that I could reduce the production errors and keep the temperature constant would be to place a Perspex block between the lamp and the elodea which would absorb most of the heat, while allowing the light energy to pass through it. Even though carbon dioxide concentration could have been an error in the experiment it is unlikely that over a short period of time the concentration would have been so low as to become the limiting factor. However if I were to perform this experiment over a longer period time the amount of CO2 will have to be measured and add sodium hydrogen carbonate to the water to increase CO2 concentration where necessary. Finally the last inaccuracy was time keeping. If we began timing just after the first bubble had been produced and in another reading it was just before, it could have had a negative effect on the accuracy of my results. Therefore on each I started just after the first bubble had been produced which increased the accuracy. Overall, I think that due to the fact that we were experimenting with small volumes of oxygen, it wasn't that accurate however enough to support and justify my hypothesis. Improvements could have been made as I have stated, but due to consequential problems related to these adjustments it was not possible. To extend this investigation into the rate of photosynthesis, I could try to involve some of the other limiting factors to the same experiment. It could also be interesting to explore the effects of colored lights on the rate of photosynthesis. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology CourseworkTo determine if the distribution of flora across Ellerbeck is due to chance. ...

    5 star(s)

    Therefore an increase in soil temperature would affect enzymes involved in planet reactions such as Ribulose Biphosphate Carboxylase which catalyses the CO2 and the five-carbon sugar ribulose biphosphate in the Calvin cycle, in the dark reaction of photosynthesis. An increase in temperature would increase the rate of photosynthesis so increasing the growth rate of the plant.

  2. The investigation is aiming to look at transpiration.

    They are formed end to end by fusion of cells called sieve. Sieve elements have a very distinctive structure. Their walls are made of cellulose and pectile substances like parenchyma cells but they degenerate and are lost as they mature and cytoplasm becomes confined to a thin layer around periphery of cells.

  1. An Investigation into Water Loss from Plants.

    31.28 30.72 30.16 1.12 3.58 6 31.61 30.99 30.20 1.41 4.46 7 30.22 29.49 28.56 1.66 5.49 8 31.23 30.36 29.83 1.4 4.48 9 30.76 30.11 29.61 1.15 3.73 10 29.71 29.16 28.76 0.95 3.19 11 29.94 29.44 29.02 0.92 3.07 12 28.16 27.7 27.27 0.89 3.16 13 30.12 29.71

  2. Mangrove Soil Analysis

    mm 120 mm 121 mm 40.3 mm per day Discussion: All soil samples have small gaps between the particles where water is absorbed and stored. All soil samples have their own characteristics and this could account for the individual rates at which they are able to absorb water.

  1. Investigating the effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis

    Therefore in our actual experiment the windows will be blacked out so that the elodea get light only from the lamp and use a light intensity meter. We did not measure the distance from the lamp to the experiment, therefore light intensity may have been different, making the experiment unfair and could lead to inaccuracies.

  2. Investigate the affect of light colour (wavelength) on photosynthesis.

    As there could have been other lights that may have entered, changing the results of the experiment. The reason why the green light was the least absorbed out of all six colours (not including white) was because of the fact that the green light is actually reflected into our eyes.

  1. Experiment to Investigate the Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Photosynthesis in Elodea.

    and cellulose, or are converted to acetylcoenzyme A to make amino acids and lipids, to be used for other functions within the plant. Other triose phosphate molecules regenerate RuBP. This stage is usually called the Calvin cycle, which is shown below: The reason why temperature has any effect on the rate of photosynthesis is due to enzyme action.

  2. Three separate experiments which are to be carried out to investigate a plant's unique ...

    Counting the leaves surface areas: On pages 17, 18, 19 and 20 are the outlines of my leaves that I used in the experiment. Below are the results for this. Surface Areas of Leaves: 1st 25% off = 325cm2 2nd 25% off = 302cm2 3rd 25% off = 264cm2 4th

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work