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The aim of the experiment is to identify the rate of reaction of hydrochloric acid with lime stone (CaCO3) and the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid on the reaction rate.

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Introduction

Aim of Investigation: The aim of the experiment is to identify the rate of reaction of hydrochloric acid with lime stone (CaCO3) and the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid on the reaction rate. Variables that could affect the outcome of the investigation: These include: 1. Temperature 2. The amount of CaCO3 3. The state of CaCO3 e.g. Powder, granular 4. The concentration of acid (HCL) 5. The amount of acid (HCL) 6. Catalyst Variable selected for the investigation is: 1. Concentration of acid (HCL) Variables that will remain constant during the investigation are: 1. Temperature 2. Amount of lime stone (CaCO3) 3. The state of lime stone (CaCO3) 4. Volume of acid (HCL) 5. No catalyst to be used Prediction: I predict that increasing the concentration of acid (HCL) will increase the rate of reaction and thus speed up the decomposition of limestone (CaCO3). My prediction is based on the assumption that with increased concentration of HCL there will be more particles of HCL to collide with CaCO3 hence producing more vigorous reaction that increases the rate of decomposition of limestone. I also predict that the rate of reaction will be directly proportional to the concentration level of the acid. In other words if the concentration level of the acid is doubled, the rate of reaction measured by the volume of CO2 produced in a specified (constant) ...read more.

Middle

We then take one measure of hydrochloric acid from same bottle as above, say 80%, and mix it with half a measure of water in a container. We then take the same volume as above from this mixture using a pipette and add it to the CaCO3 in the conical flask and immediately start the stopwatch. After the same time elapses as above, 2 minutes, we take another reading of the amount of CO2 collected in the measuring cylinder. We record the second set of readings in the same table as shown below: HCL CO2 Time Weight of CaCO3 Concentration volume (constant) (constant) 80% ---- 2 ------ 53.33% ---- 2 ------ Step 3: Now that we have completed the second part of the experiment and recorded the second set of results, we again clean and dry the conical flask, pipette, container and measuring cylinder and start the experiment all over again. This time we weigh exactly the same amount of CaCO3 as above and place it in the conical flask. We then take one measure of hydrochloric acid of certain concentration and mix it with one measure of water in a container. We then take the same volume as above from this mixture using a pipette and add it to the CaCO3 in the conical flask and immediately start the stopwatch. After exactly the same time say two minutes as above we take a reading of the amount of CO2 collected in the measuring cylinder. ...read more.

Conclusion

Then use the same volume as step 1 using a pipette to add it to CaCO3 in the conical flask. This will reduce concentration to 1/4 of its original concentration making it 20% concentrated HCL Step 6: Mix one measure of HCL with four measures of water. Then use the same volume as step 1 using a pipette to add it to CaCO3 in the conical flask. This will reduce concentration to 1/5 of its original concentration making it 16% concentrated HCL Step 7: Mix one measure of HCL with five measures of water. Then use the same volume as step 1 using a pipette to add it to CaCO3 in the conical flask. This will reduce concentration to 1/6 of its original concentration making it 13.33% concentrated HCL Step 8: Mix one measure of HCL with six measures of water. Then use the same volume as step 1 using a pipette to add it to CaCO3 in the conical flask. This will reduce concentration to 1/7 of its original concentration making it 11.43% concentrated HCL Step 9: Mix one measure of HCL with seven measures of water. Then use the same volume as step 1 using a pipette to add it to CaCO3 in the conical flask. This will reduce concentration to 1/8 of its original concentration making it 10% concentrated HCL Chemical Reaction: The chemical reaction that is taking place while conducting above experiment is: CaCO3 + HCL -------------- CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 Conclusion: ...read more.

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