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The aim of the experiment is to produce 1 - Bromobutane, an alkane within the bromine group on the terminal group.

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Introduction

Preparation of 1 - Bromobutane Aim The aim of the experiment is to produce 1 - Bromobutane, an alkane within the bromine group on the terminal group. Chemical Safety Chemical Hazards Safety measures Sodium Bromide No hazards None Butan - 1 - ol Harmful vapour, in liquid state chemical is harmful to skin, can be absorbed and cause internal damage. Flammable. Wear goggles and gloves. If spilled ventilate area and wash contact area. Sulphuric Acid Very Corrosive to eyes, skin and materials. Wear gloves and goggles. For large spillage spread sodium carbonate on spill and wash with water If contact with skin occurs wash with water. Sodium Hydroxide Corrosive. Skin contact harmful. Solution can cause burns. Very dangerous to eyes. Wear cloves and goggles. If contact with skin or eyes occurs wash thoroughly with water. Diagram Method * Set the equipment up as shown above (picture 1) * Dissolve 8g of sodium bromide in 10cm3 of pure water and stir to create a homologous solution * Add the sodium bromide to 7 cm3 of butan-1-ol in a 50 cm3 pear shaped flask. To this then add 10 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid 1 cm3 at a time. ...read more.

Middle

This bromo group then associates itself with another H+ ion to form water: CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + Br- > CH3CH2CH2CH2Br + OH- In the final stage a molecule of sulphuric acid attacks the lone pair on an -OH function group. This releases a molecule of water, and a mixture of Butoxybutane and But-1-ene is formed, along with the regenerated Sulphuric Acid: CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + H2SO4 > CH3CH2CH=CH2 + H2O + H2SO4 or 2 CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + H2SO4 > CH3(CH2)3O(CH2)3CH3 + H2O + H2SO4 Results Mass of NaBr in pot = 11.47g Mass of pot = 3.49g Mass of Sodium Bromide = 7.98g Mass of collecting beaker = 54.25g Mass of distillation and beaker = 58.47g Mass of 1 bromobutane collected = 4.22g Yield Obtained Theoretical yield = (moles of limiting reagent)(stoichiometric ratio; desired product/limiting reagent)(Mr of desired product) = (0.0941 mole)(1 mole / 1 mole)(137.03g/ mole) = 12.9g Actual mass gained = 4.22g Therefore actual yield = (Actual yield / Theoretical yield) x 100 = (4.22/12.9) x 100 = 32.7% Conclusion From my experiment I have found out that the practical yield of 1 bromobutane when made from butan - 1 - ol, is a lot lower than the theoretical yield, which was stated in a textbook. ...read more.

Conclusion

One of the easiest problems would have been to use sensors during distillation to record the temperature this would mean that fewer impurities would have been boiled off by accident. Also by setting up the experiment so it was easier to change between conical flasks would reduce that amount of distil which was missed during the change over. Another improvement to increase the yield would be to run the experiment at optimum conditions, which would promote a faster rate of reaction due to more collisions occurring and therefore more products being formed and a higher yield being collected. A final improvement to gain a higher yield would be to have allowed the solution to "dry" for longer this again would cut out some more impurities and therefore increase the yield. This was not done during the actual exam as time was running out and instead of letting the solution settle and then filter out the solid, the solution was allowed to settle and then the clear layers were removed and placed into the pear shaped flask using a pipette. Even though there were some areas in which the experiment could have been improved I feel that the experiment went to a decent degree of accuracy and this is shown by the fact that I got quite a large percent of the theoretical yield in my practical yield. ...read more.

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