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The aim of the investigation is to find out if the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects rate of reaction between it and magnesium.

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Introduction

Aim The aim of the investigation is to find out if the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects rate of reaction between it and magnesium. Fair Testing Independent variable - Concentration of hydrochloric acid using 0.25M, 0.5M, 1M, 1.5M and 2M. Dependant variable - How much is gas is produced every 10 seconds of the reaction up to 50 seconds. Controlled variables - * Boiling tubes - Use same type of boiling tubes. * Amount of reactants - Use 30ml of hydrochloric acid and 2g of magnesium for all of the reactions. * Temperature - Carry all reactions out at room temperature. * Stopwatch - Use same stopwatch. * Gas syringe - Use same gas syringe. Prediction & Theory I think when using the higher concentration of hydrochloric acid the rate of reaction will increase so more gas will be produced in a small amount of time. I base my prediction on that because the hydrochloric acid is more concentrated the particles are crowded closer together they will collide with the magnesium particles more often. This results in an increased number of successful collisions. This would also suggest that the greatest rate of reaction is usually as soon as the reactants have been mixed together because they are both at their highest concentrations. ...read more.

Middle

Method (Main test) 1) Connect opposite end from bung of delivery tube to gas syringe. 2) Put boiling tube in boiling tube rack. 3) Measure 30ml of 0.25M hydrochloric acid and pour into boiling tube. 4) Get someone else to be ready with stopwatch to start timing. 5) Release magnesium strip into boiling tube and immediately push the bung end of the delivery tube into the boiling tube whilst telling the person with the stopwatch to begin timing. 6) After every 10 seconds record how much gas has been produced in the gas syringe. 7) Do this until you reach 50 seconds. 8) Repeat steps 2 - 7 for 0.5M, 1M, 1.5M & 2M hydrochloric acid. 9) Repeat whole experiment another 2 times and record results in separate tables. Fair Testing To make our investigation fair we only changed the independent variable, which was the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, everything else we kept constant. We timed up to 50 seconds because we thought this would give us a good range of results especially for the reactions with higher concentrations of acid. We also improved the reliability of our results by carrying out the investigation 3 times to check for any anomalous results, this also means we will be able to get an average of our results. ...read more.

Conclusion

This happened because of the increased amount of hydrochloric acid particles meant that more successful collisions could be carried out in a smaller amount of time. This agrees with my original prediction because my average shows that the higher concentration of acid produced more gas in less time. It also shows that the most gas was produced at the start of the reaction because that's where the line of best fit is steepest. Where the line of best-fit level out on the graph is where the reaction finished. Evaluation I thought our investigation went well and it provided us with a good set of results, which were accurate. Our results were consistent each time we repeated the investigation with the exception of one reaction the second time we repeated it, these anomalous results are highlighted in red in the results table. I'm not sure why those results turned out to be anomalous, there was no apparent reason for it when we carried out the reaction. However after doing an average table and graph not including the anomalous results I think our results are good enough to draw firm conclusions on how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction between that and magnesium strip. I don't think any changes could be made to improve our investigation has it went very well. Investigation Into Weather Concentration Of Hydrochloric Acid Affects Rate Of Reaction With Magnesium Page 1 of 5 ...read more.

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