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The aim of this coursework is to investigate how varying a factor affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate (Marble).

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Introduction

Ben Lloyd 11SJH Chemistry Coursework Rate of Reaction Aim The aim of this coursework is to investigate how varying a factor affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate (Marble). What is a reaction? A reaction is when two particles (reactants) join to form a new product or products. What is rate? Rate is a measure of how fast or how slow something is. Rate is a measurement of the change that happens in a single unit of time, any suitable measurement can be used such as seconds, minutes, hours or even days. What is the rate of a chemical reaction? The rate of a chemical reaction is how fast the reactants react. Collision Theory For Hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate to react the particles of each must collide with each other, the collision must have a sufficient amount of energy. The rate of reaction depends on how many successful collisions there are in a given unit of time. If there are a lot of successful collisions in a given minute, then a lot of hydrogen is produced in that minute, in other words the reaction goes quickly if the rate is high. If the concentration of the acid is increased then the reaction rate is higher and the reaction takes place quicker. There are also more successful collisions than there would be with a lower concentration. Preliminary Tests - Test 1 We put three different sizes of marble stones together with Hydrochloric Acid and measured the amount of Carbon Dioxide given off every 10 seconds. ...read more.

Middle

1.0M 2.0M 3.0M 4.0M 1 2 3 Ave 1 2 3 Ave 1 2 3 Ave 1 2 3 Ave 1 2 3 Ave 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 3.3 13.0 15.0 18.0 15.3 40.0 22.0 25.0 29.0 25.0 65.0 45.0 45.0 20 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 6.0 7.0 5.0 6.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 30.0 80.0 40.0 48.0 56.0 50.0 110.0 85.0 81.7 30 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 12.0 9.0 11.0 10.7 38.0 50.0 50.0 46.0 90.0 60.0 67.0 72.3 75.0 140.0 115.0 110.0 40 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 18.0 15.0 17.0 16.7 50.0 57.0 65.0 57.3 110.0 78.0 86.0 91.3 100.0 ! 130.0 115.0 50 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 30.0 24.0 26.0 26.7 60.0 70.0 80.0 70.0 130.0 95.0 110.0 111.7 130.0 ! ! 130.0 Average 0.8 0.8 0.8 11.5 9.8 10.3 31.0 37.0 41.3 75.0 49.2 56.0 63.3 78.8 75.0 Total Average 0.8 10.6 36.4 60.1 72.4 Now I have calculated these averages the results state quite clearly that as the concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid is increased the amount of Carbon Dioxide given off in 50 seconds also increases. The reaction that takes place is: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) --> CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) On the table of results above I have shaded two sets of results grey, the 40 & 50 seconds results. This is because the results I have gained were not gained accurately as they went off the scale of the gas-measuring cylinder. ...read more.

Conclusion

But disregarding the anomalies the results I do have still manage to prove my prediction. With scientific evidence to back up my prediction my results prove it. Also my graphs show that the higher the concentration the faster the reaction takes place. But even if the experiment had gathered more accurate results I would have still been brought to the same conclusion that the higher the reaction, the faster the reaction! Investigation variations This experiment went very well overall, although the factors I have discussed above did not seem to accredit the method very well. The major weakness with the method we used was the loss of gas during the process of connecting the bung to the conical flask. So the best way to solve this problem, is not to adapt the current method, but to get rid of it. I think that an alternative method of conducting this experiment would be to measure something other than the gas release. An idea is to measure the weight difference. An alternative method would be as follows: * Place a conical flask containing a fixed amount of CaCO3 in. * Take the weight of the flask and contents & add it to the weight of the fixed amount of HCl. * Keeping the conical flask on the scales add the HCl to the flask. Every 10 seconds you can take the reading of the weight as it decreases on the scales. From this I can work out the weight difference. This difference will represent the content given off as gas. From this I can derive a reaction rate. Below is an example diagram of this method: Page 1 of 1 ...read more.

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