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The aim of this experiment is it to find out the concentration of Limewater by performing a titration with hydrochloric acid which has concentration exactly 2.00M.

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Introduction

Aim: The aim of this experiment is it to find out the concentration of Limewater by performing a titration with hydrochloric acid which has concentration exactly 2.00M. Equipment: The equipment I will need for this is a burette, 25ml pipette, pipette pump, white tile, clamp stand, boss head, clamp, 250ml limewater, phenolphthalein, 100ml hydrochloric acid, volumetric flask, distilled water, conical flasks and a calculator. Safety: Throughout this experiment normal lab rules will apply with safety gear to be worn at all times e.g. goggles and lab coat, also due to fact we are using hazardous chemicals their hazards must be taken into account. The chemicals that we will use are limewater and hydrochloric acid and the hazards are as follows: Hydrochloric acid - Very corrosive, irritant. Limewater (alkali) - Irritant. The reaction between the hydrochloric acid and limewater will also produce calcium chloride and water both of which have no hazards and are not dangerous at all. Phenolphthalein, which will be used as well, has no dangers to health and will not react with any of the other chemicals to produce anything dangerous. ...read more.

Middle

However to make sure that this accuracy is maintained all errors must be carefully avoided such as parallax errors occurring when your eye line is not level with the line you are filling equipment up to. However to maintain this accuracy ALL apparatus must be washed with distilled water before and after use as some will be used more then once and any residual chemicals will affect the outcome. To actually dilute the acid you will need the pipette and the pump to collect exactly 25ml taking into account parallax errors where the level of the 25ml line is at the bottom of the meniscus. By placing this in a volumetric flask and topping it up to 250ml with distilled water taking into account the parallax error again, This will have taken the molar down to 0.2M so by repeating this process again the molar will be taken down to 0.02M which is now ready for the titration. By using the pipette again the coll exactly 25ml of Calcium hydroxide in a conical flask with some phenolphthalein placed in it, the colour of the solution will be a purple/pink colour and when the alkali is fully neutralised the solution will become colourless. ...read more.

Conclusion

Each time you make a reading you must be careful to note the starting volume of acid in the burette and the end volume making sure there are no parallax errors. Once you have these results you will need to apply the formula: V1 * C1 = V2 * C2 Where reagent 1 is the hydrochloric acid and reagent 2 is the calcium hydroxide. The 3 results you have from the experiment should be sorted so that any obvious outliers are ignored and the average taken from the rest, ideally the results should all be within 0.2ml of each other. This number represents V1 and the concentration for this is 0.02mol and so by multiplying these numbers together and dividing this by V2. However you must remember that these volumes must be in dm� and hence divide the volumes in ml by 1000. Once you have you're the molar of the calcium hydroxide it will need to be converted in to g/dm and to do this we will need the relative atomic mass as well. Ca(OH)2 has a RAM of 74.1 so my multiplying this by the molar will give us the mass (in grams) per dm. ...read more.

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