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The aim of this experiment is to determine the rate of reaction of hydrolysis on halogenalkanes. Explanation In this experiment, you compare the rate of hydrolysis of chlorine, bromine and iodine

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Introduction

Coursework Aim The aim of this experiment is to determine the rate of reaction of hydrolysis on halogenalkanes. Explanation In this experiment, you compare the rate of hydrolysis of chlorine, bromine and iodine. A general equation of this is: H H X= Cl, Br or I | | R-C-X H2O R-C- OH + HX | | H H You can follow the rate of reaction action by using silver nitrate to test for halide ions and produce a silver halide precipitate Ag+ + X- AgX(s) Nucleophilic substitution of a halogenalkane Prediction I predict that iodine will have the quickest rate of reaction because out of the three elements there are it is the weakest bond. ...read more.

Middle

Iodine will also make a precipitate first. Apparatus � Safety spectacles � Bunsen burner, tripod, gauze and bench protection sheet (or a thermostatically controlled water-bath, set at 60 C) � Beaker, 250 cm � Thermometer, 0-100�C � 5 test-tubes fitted with corks � Test-tube rack- � Waterproof marker or china graph pencil - � Protective plastic gloves � measuring cylinder, 10 cm � Ethanol, C2H5OH � 1-chlorobutane C4H9 � 1-bromobutane, C4H9Br � 1-iodobutane, C4H9I � Silver nitrate solution 0.05 M AgNO3 � Stopclock (or clock with second's hand) Method 1. Set up the apparatus, make sure none of the test tubes contain tap-water, as this would give an immediate precipitate with silver nitrate and spoil the results. ...read more.

Conclusion

8. Continue for about 30 minutes more, noting any further changes in the appearance of the precipitates. Fair test For a fair test I will keep the following the same: * Carbon chain length. * Volumes of solution * Concentration of solution One thing which I will change and is was having different halogens in the each of the halogenalknaes. Safety The equipment needed to ensure safety will be: goggles, gloves and long hair tied back. Halogenalkanes are highly flammable and other chemicals in the experiment can be corrosive. I didn't use fluorine as a comparison of rate of reaction because it has the strongest bond enthalpy, so it would have been hard to break its bond, therefore would have taken to long for the experiment. Fluorine is also highly reactive. ?? ?? ?? ?? Greig Boyd ...read more.

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