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The aim of this experiment is to find out and study how temperature has an effect on the rates of reaction. I am going to investigate the changes caused to the solution of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate when the temperature is increased.

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Introduction

Rates of Reactions Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out and study how temperature has an effect on the rates of reaction. I am going to investigate the changes caused to the solution of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate when the temperature is increased. Prediction: A chemical reaction can only occur between particles when they collide. Particles may be atoms, ions or molecules. There is a minimum amount of energy which colliding particles need in order to react with each other. If the colliding particles have less than the minimum energy, then they just bounce off each other and no reaction occurs. The minimum energy is called the activation energy. Temperature: Increasing the temperature makes the particles move more rapidly. This means that more particles collide with each other per second. Also, the more rapidly the particles are moving, the greater is the proportion of them which will have the necessary activation energy for reaction to take place. The reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid: Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid � sodium chloride + water + sulphur dioxide + sulphur Na2S2O3 (aq) ...read more.

Middle

This causes them to move around more. It works like this for all substances, not just those two. Chemical reactions require collisions, and if particles are moving around more quickly they are obviously more likely to collide. Safety: Precautions to use whilst performing this experiment are: * Wear goggles to protect eyes from chemicals that could be harmful * Do not allow chemicals to come into contact with skin (could cause irritation or burns) * Keep hair tied back to avoid flames and contact with chemicals. * Do not allow skin to come into contact with the flame (Bunsen burner) * Do not drop glass or breakable objects that can shatter and cause harm. * Should stand to put a appropriate distance between student and the experiment. These precautions should be carried out to assure the scientist and surrounding classmates do not come to any harm resulting from any faults or anomalies in the experiment. Fair Test: To assure no anomalies form in the experiments results, these precautions should be taken: * Repetition of the experiment to eliminate anomalies in the results * Equal measurements of both chemicals in all repetitions. ...read more.

Conclusion

The entire process is to be repeated. Repeat results and averages will be taken to improve the reliability of the findings, and present solid grounding for the finishing conclusion. The repeat results will help to iron out any anomalies and the average will give a good summary of the results of the experiment. However if one set of results is entirely different to the last, a third experiment will be carried out to replace the anomalous set of results. Pre-test: Analysis: This is because with more heat, the particles of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid have further energy. This causes them to move around more. Chemical reactions involve collisions, and if two sets of particles are moving around rapidly there will naturally be more collisions. However, the collisions require the particles to hit each other at a certain speed, and if this speed is not reached then the reaction will just not happen. So, at the high temperatures, more of the particles were travelling at a high enough speed to collide and react. At the lower temperatures it was more difficult for the particles to collide. Only some were able to reach the required speed and react. ...read more.

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