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# The aim of this experiment is to find out if when penguins

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Introduction

Science Coursework: Penguins Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out if when penguins "huddle up" it creates warmth for the penguins. Method: In this experiment I am going to use test tubes to symbolise penguins "huddling up". I will firstly get all of my equipment, then I will fill firstly one test tube with water, then 9, then 17, then 25 in bunches. I will fill them all with water at a temperature of 65 degrees C. I will leave each set for 5 minutes and record the temperature of the centre tube. I will see if this tube huddled between a bunch is the highest temperature after 5 minutes than the rest. If the test tube in the bunch of 25 has the highest, my prediction will be correct. Fair Test: To make my experiment a fair test I will do the following: * Make sure each test tube is exactly the same size, I will do this by measuring them. ...read more.

Middle

This is why the larger the group, the warmer, I believe, the penguins will be. Equipment list * 25 test tubes * A thermometer * A stopwatch * A kettle * An elastic band to hold the bundles together * Safety glasses Preliminary tests Before I started the experiment I had to test a few things to ensure safety and accuracy: I tested to see how hot the water was after being boiled in the kettle, tested to see if this was safe and used that temperature to ensure all test tubes were of the same temperature. I also tested to see if five minutes was long enough to see if any changes had occurred, I realised it was long enough. Background Information The three main ways in which things lose heat is conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction is where heat passes through an object; this helps the penguins as heat conducts from penguin to penguin until the end of the bunch. ...read more.

Conclusion

I know this was an anomalous result because a) it does not follow the trend and b) After doing it three times both other results were not anomalies. Evaluation All in all I think my experiment was a complete success. My prediction matches my results apart from one anomalous result. I think my preliminary tests helped me a lot when it came to the experiment as I felt organised and was assured that nothing in my control could go wrong. Despite this if I were to do the experiment again I would test different variables that could affect Penguin temperature such as their fur. I would also have carried the experiment out with a wider variety of test tubes to confirm what I have found out from this practical. I would have left the test tubes for a longer period of time as penguins huddle up for much longer than I have tested. Finally, I would use the information that I have found out from this experiment and take it one step further by testing my experiment in harsher conditions, as penguins have to face. Michael Finney 13/11/2003 ...read more.

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# Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

1. ## Heat loss in Emperor Penguins.

My pre-test consisted of a 1 layer arrangement, similar to Huddle I in my final experiment. The results are shown below. Fig. Temperature Time (minutes) Central Cup First Layer 0 72 70 1 66.5 69 2 63.5 67.5 3 61 65 4 58.5 64 5 56.0 63 6 55 62

2. ## Why Penguins Huddle?

Range Of Variables: My range of variables will go like this: * 1 Penguin * 3 Penguin * 5 Penguin * 7 Penguin * 9 Penguin This is a fair range of variables, and I should be able to show my investigation through this.

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