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The aim of this experiment is to investigate the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

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Introduction

Aim The aim of this experiment is to investigate the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate ==> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide 2HCl (aq) CaCo3 (s) CaCl2 (s) H2O (aq) CO2 (g) There are a number of variables in this experiment and these are listed below as input variables and outcome variables. The input variables are the ones that I can change in order to affect the experiment and the outcome variables are the ones I will measure to see how the input variable has affected it. Input Variables Amount of calcium carbonate Amount of hydrochloric acid Surface area of calcium carbonate Concentration of hydrochloric acid Temperature of hydrochloric acid Introduction of a catalyst Outcome variables Amount of calcium chloride released Amount of water released Amount of carbon dioxide released Change in weight Out of these variables I will use concentration as my input variable and amount of carbon dioxide released as my outcome variable. You can see how I will use and measure these variables in the method section of this investigation. My preliminary results can be found in appendix 1. These show what measurements of the input variables I decided to use and why I decided this. Prediction I predict that as the concentration of the hydrochloric acid decreases the rate of reaction will decrease and therefore the time taken for 75ml of gas to be released will increase. ...read more.

Middle

Mass of CaCO3 (g) Volume of acid (ml) Volume of water (ml) Concentration of acid (moles) Target amount of gas (ml) Time taken to collect target amount of gas (sec) 3 40 0 2 75 68 3 35 5 1.75 75 76 3 30 10 1.5 75 183 3 25 15 1.25 75 158 3 20 20 1 75 188 3 40 0 2 75 74 3 35 5 1.75 75 93 3 30 10 1.5 75 107 3 25 15 1.25 75 141 3 20 20 1 75 180 Analysis of results Below are three graphs of my results. The first two are for each time I repeated the experiment and the third graph is an average of my results. All of these graphs are designed to enable me to analyse my results to a fuller extent. You can see the excel spreadsheet that I worked from to obtain the graphs in appendix 3 Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Average of Experiments From looking at my graphs I can conclude that the more concentrated the acid, the quicker the required amount of gas was collected. You can clearly see this on all three of my graphs by looking at the black line. This line is a line of best fit and shows the overall pattern of the graph. In all three of the graphs this pattern is the same and is that as the concentration increases the time taken to collect the gas decreases. ...read more.

Conclusion

If I am measuring 40cm3 of hydrochloric acid this means I could have an error margin of 0.5cm3 either way or a 1cm3 error margin. As I am only measuring 40cm3 this means that 2.5% of it is wrong. Another factor beyond my control is room temperature, which we have to assume remains constant but it could vary significantly from day to day leading to more inaccuracies. All of these inaccuracies can combine to make a huge potential for error and my results an unfair test but unfortunately all equipment has inaccuracies built into it and so an experiment can never be perfect. However this does not mean that my conclusion is false as the same problems were encountered in each test and as my results are fairly linear they must have reasonably correct. If I were to repeat this experiment I would conduct it more times than I did in this experiment as I feel that 2 times is not enough to smooth out any inaccuracies in my results. In order to get a good average of results I believe that you would need to repeat the experiment at least ten times. If I were to repeat this experiment I would extend it by using stronger acids to see if there is a limit to how quickly the reaction can take place. I would also leave the experiment for longer and collect a greater amount of gas. ...read more.

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