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The aim of this field experiment is to find out how various activities around the river can affect the water quality such as the clearness of the water.

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Introduction

IS 1106 Atmosphere & Hydrosphere Assignment 2 The aim of this field experiment is to find out how various activities around the river can affect the water quality such as the clearness of the water. In order to carry out this field experiment, we used data loggers the black and white disc, beaker, filter paper, ping-pong ball, raffia string and bamboo sticks. For the experiment to test for the temperature of the river water, we used the data logger which was provided for us. Firstly, we connect TMP (T/C - K �C) to the MultiLog's input channel I/O-1.Then we switched the data logger on and make sure the MultiLog displays "Ready". Then we click PORT until "INPUT-1" is displayed. After which, we click SENSOR until "Temperature" is displayed and RANGE until "TC-K�C" is displayed. Click RATE until "Every Sec" is displayed. Click SAMPLES until "Samples = 2000"is displayed. Click TRIGGER until "Not Active" is displayed. After that, we place probe in the water and click the run/stop button ad wait for the reading to stabilize. Finally, we take the reading in degree Celsius and click the run/stop button to stop. As for the experiment to test for the pH level of the water, we continued to use the data logger. ...read more.

Middle

Quality of water Riverbank Center of river(surface) Center of river (bottom) Turbidity Fine particles suspended Small black particles Clear with little particles PH Values 6.7 8.37 7.59 Dissolved oxygen 77% 80% 70% Velocity 13.961 s/m 14.243 s/m Nil Temperature 26?C 24?C 26?C Activities Littering by visitors, vehicles and train nearby Water skiing, breeze, speed boat and construction site Nil Figure 1. Table of water qualities in Kallang River For the riverbank, fine particles could be seen suspending in the water due to the dust from the train and vehicles. Vehicles by the road side especially lorries produce exhaust fumes. There are small particles and dust contained in the fumes and when they were blown by wind, the particles tend to enter the river water. Thus, fine particles were suspended in the water by the riverbank. Due to the construction site and the speedboats in the centre of the river, these causes tiny black particles to enter the river water. For the bottom of the centre of the river, most of the particles in the water tend to float up to the surface and thus, the water at the bottom of the centre of the river is clean and have little visible particles. If the particles did not float up, most probably it will sink under the sand and the sand would weigh it down. ...read more.

Conclusion

The river water moved due to the breeze blowing and the speedboat traveling. When we left the ping-pong ball at the surface of the water, it did not move and only moved slightly at a speed of 5m/h when the breeze blew. Thus, we were unable to carry out the experiment for the velocity of the river. Overall, I think that the this experiment is quite well-done except for the fact that the velocity of the river water at Pasar Ris could not be carried out because of the stagnancy of the water and the continuous blowing of breeze and speedboats whizzing past. As for the Kallang River, the velocity of the water might be also due to the wind or other factors. Thus, I think that the experiment for the velocity of the river has failed. And the pH value of the rivers might be due to other factors such as acidity of the rain, which causes it to be acidic or alkaline. The turbidity of the river can be further improved by taking the river water samples and then test it for even microorganisms. We should have used a microscope and observed the microorganisms and then evaporate the river water to see if there are more micro organisms in the water so we can be sure if the water is really clear. Christabel Cho Jia Yu 04IP05 04 ...read more.

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