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The aim of this investigation is to determine whether if changing the concentration of a solution (hydrochloric acid) will affect the rate of which the reaction it occurs with another reactant (calcium carbonate). To do this I will need to research what t

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Introduction

How Concentration Affects The Rate of a Reaction The aim of this investigation is to determine whether if changing the concentration of a solution (hydrochloric acid) will affect the rate of which the reaction it occurs with another reactant (calcium carbonate). To do this I will need to research what the rate of a reaction is, the "collision theory", "activation energy" and the factors that affect the rate of a reaction. Also I will carry out a series of preliminary tests in preparation for my investigation. A reaction can only take place when a successful collision is occurred, so for a reaction to take place two different elements have to concur with each other, this depends on the amount of atoms and energy in the two elements, this is called a successful collision. A chemical reaction can only take place when two different elements collide with each other. What is the Rate of a Reaction? The rate of a reaction is how quickly the product(s) are made or how quickly the reactants are lost. Reactant (what we start with) ? Products (what we end up with) The Collision Theory For a chemical reaction to occur "successful" collisions need to take place. A successful collision is where the molecules that collide are the right way around, and collide with enough energy for bonds to break. If the collisions that occurred didn't happen the right way round or with out enough energy then they would simply bounce off each other. Activation Energy Even if the molecules are orientated properly, you still won't get a reaction unless the particles collide with a certain minimum amount of energy called the activation energy of the reaction. Reactants that have too much energy bounce straight off each other so a reaction will not occur. Reactants with not enough energy when collided won't have enough energy for a reaction to take place. ...read more.

Middle

The reaction took longer than the powder but no where near as long as it took the chunks to react. The chunks took a very long time to react; the reaction did not come to a complete end in the time I used to carry out this test and may have even taken 1 - 2 hours to complete fully. This surface area was time consuming to test and would not be suitable to use in my investigation. After carrying out the preliminary work I found that the chips of calcium carbonate will be best to use in my investigation. This is because it will allow the reaction to take place at a decent pace, not too quickly so that when recording the results it would be difficult and inaccurate. Nor does it occur too slowly so that the investigation becomes time consuming and tiresome. Prediction As I have learned previously in my research the greater the concentration the faster the rate of reaction will be. I believe this to be true to my investigation. From this I predict that the higher the concentration is the faster the rate of reaction will be. The more molecules there are in the hydrochloric acid solution the more molecules there are to react with the calcium carbonate. So logically the higher the concentration is the faster the rate of the reaction will be. Also I predict that the 2% concentration of the hydrochloric acid will produce the fastest rate of reaction and produce the most CO�. This is because this is the strongest of the five concentrations, being the strongest concentration it will have the highest number hydrochloric acid molecules in the solution to react with the calcium carbonate. Because there are many molecules to react with the calcium carbonate, more reactions will take place, the more reactions that take place the faster the reaction will be. ...read more.

Conclusion

The more successful reactions there are the faster the reaction will be. This was true for the concentrations 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Though the highest concentration (2%) did have the fastest rate of reaction but didn't produce the most CO�. A possible reason for this finding may be that the gas syringe may not have been sufficiently lubricated. If not properly lubricated friction could arise between the outer and inner pieces of the gas syringe. The CO� produced may not be strong enough to push past it, therefore producing inaccurate results. Another reason may be that at this time in the testing period the conical flask may have been stationary instead of being stirred. This may have had an effect on the results obtained as shaking the flask has the same effect as increasing the temperature. The movement makes the particles collide more often so if they are not colliding as often the reaction may slow down. When carrying out the investigation I felt that the whole process went well and was successful. Though there was one minor setback, a difficulty when weighing chips of the Calcium Carbonate, as it was a time consuming and tedious job finding chips that weighed exactly 0.2 g. To improve an aspect of the investigation I think I could have used one single piece of Calcium Carbonate weighing exactly 0.2 g, instead of two or three pieces weighing a collective 0.2 g. This most probably had affected the investigation when collecting the readings and tabulating the results, as they wouldn't have been as accurate as possible. Being many pieces it would increase the surface area of the chips, compared to one single chip, which is a factor that can affect the rate of a reaction thus causing the results to incorrect. If I had carried out a second investigation it would have reinforced what I have already concluded. A second investigation should produce similar results to those that I have collected, and so a second conclusion would relate and back up what I had previously found out. ...read more.

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