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The aim of this investigation is to find out what makes the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid take place faster.

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Introduction

Samantha Smith Science Investigation The aim of this investigation is to find out what makes the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid take place faster. Introduction Kinetic energy means 'movement energy'. A moving thing has energy because it can make forces move when it hits something. Kinetic theory is an attempt to explain the properties of gases by the fact that they are made up of small particles, well spaced out, moving rapidly at random. Kinetic theory says the following about gas molecules: 1. The particles are moving at random 2. We can neglect the volume of the particles themselves in comparison with the total volume of the gas 3. The particles do not attract one another 4. The kinetic energy of the particles is proportional to the temperature of the gas 5. No energy is lost in collisions between particles. GAS LIQUID SOLID The theory explains all the state of gases we have ever observed. E.g. bombardment, on the walls of a bottle, by particles explains pressure. The fact that movement increases with increasing temperature means that molecules hit the walls harder and more often, which means the pressure will increase. Kinetic Theory gives this equation: PV = 1/3 Nmc.c P = pressure, V = volume, N = number of molecules, m = mass of each particle c = average velocity of the particles. ...read more.

Middle

* Repeat the experiment to make sure your results are correct. As the experiment will be taking place in only a School laboratory precise measurements etc might not be exactly the same as equipment isn't always available. The results should be quite accurate, but not as accurate as they would be if they were done properly in a laboratory with more equipment. Safety This experiment inst very dangerous but it does involve acid, so make sure that: * Safety glasses are worn. This will protect your eyes in case some of the hydrochloric acid is spilt. * Make sure benches are tucked under desks to avoid trips and falls, * Hair should be tied back so that it doesn't get in the way of anything. * Make sure you stand up for the whole of the experiment. Equipment 1 Measuring cylinder 2 Beakers 24 cm magnesium (12 x 2cm) Water Hydrochloric acid Stopwatch Prediction I predict that the more acid there is in the solution, the quicker the reaction will take place. I think this will happen because there will be more acid particles for the magnesium to react with. The more acidic particles the quicker the magnesium will touch the particles and react. (Mg + 2Hcl --> MgCl2 + H2) I think that there will be no reaction between the magnesium and the solution containing only water, as magnesium doesn't react with water. ...read more.

Conclusion

We could have measured it out wrong or the stopwatch may have been wrong. To make the results even more accurate we could have: When measuring out the solutions more care could have been taken to ensure that the amount was correct. To make them more accurate we could have used graduated pipettes or a burette to make sure that the amount of solution that was put into the petri dishes was right. The meniscus in the beakers of solution should have been checked before the experiment was carried out. The results are reasonably reliable as there is only one anomalous result. It could have been made more reliable by making the experiment more accurate. This includes making sure all measurements were correct. You could have also measured how much gas was given off in the reaction between the magnesium and hydrochloric acid. This could have been done with a gas syringe. If I repeated the investigation I would measure the gas as another variable. The investigation could have been improved in lots of ways. Improvements would have made sure that the results were more accurate. Better equipment could have been used, like using pipettes and burettes. The miniscus should have been checked as this could have made a big difference if the measurements were not correct. The experiment could also be repeated again; this then would mean that the average or the best results could be used. If there was more time then the experiment could have been done with more care. ...read more.

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