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The aim was to plan and conduct an investigation into the factors that affect the rate at which acid reacts with marble.

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The problem given: Many statues and buildings are made from calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ). This is a material, which reacts with acid. Unfortunately in recent decades people have placed chemicals into the atmosphere, which have contributed to the problem, known as acid rain. This has resulted in building materials such as limestone and marble being worn away. Aim: The aim was to plan and conduct an investigation into the factors that affect the rate at which acid reacts with marble. Background Theory: Here is the reaction, which will take place HCl + CaCO3 CaCl3 + CO2 + H2O There many factors that affect the rate of reaction. Here are a few of them: Collision Theory: The collision theory states that in order for a molecular collision to be effective it must meet two conditions: 1. The collision must have sufficient enough impact energy to overcome the Activation Energy. The Activation energy is the minimum energy necessary for product to form. This impact energy must be sufficient so that bonds can be broken within the reactant molecules and new bonds formed to produce the products. 2. The molecules must have a proper positioning for effective collisions to occur. Temperature - At low temperatures particles of reacting substances do not have much energy. The higher the temperature the more energy each particle will have which means it will move more, causing the amount of collisions in a given time to increase. ...read more.


the two mole ratio I was able to calculate that 2 grams of chips reacts with 20 cm3 of 2 molar acid, but I decided to use excess moles of acid with each concentration so that it would not run out. Using this information, I can find out the molarity for each concentration that is shown in the table above. Concentration = moles/ total volume of gas given off. Moles in 50cm� acid = dm3molarity = 50/1000 x 2 = 0.1Moles Molarity = moles / dm3 = 0.1/(50 / 1000) = 2Moles / dm3 Moles in 40cm� acid = dm3molarity = 40/1000 x 2 = 0.08Moles Molarity = moles / dm3 = 0.08/(50 / 1000) = 1.6Moles / dm3 Moles in 30cm� acid = dm3molarity = 30/1000 x 2 = 0.06 Molarity = moles / dm3 = 0.06/(50 / 1000) = 1.2Moles / dm3 Moles in 20cm� acid = dm3molarity = 20/1000 x 2 = 0.04 Molarity = moles / dm3 = 0.04/(50 / 1000) = 0.8moles/dm3 Moles in 10cm� acid = dm3molarity = 10/1000 x 2 = 0.02 Molarity = moles / dm3 = 0.02/(50/1000) = 0.4moles/dm3 Hypothesis: I believe that by increasing the concentration of acid will increase the speed of the reaction. This is because the more concentrated the acid more particles are present and so there is a greater chance for the particles to successfully collide with each other. ...read more.


This is due to the fact more/less energy would be needed to start the reaction and there would be a higher or lower gradient of the line so the gradients would not go up down by the same amounts. In order to perhaps gain a more accurate set of results I would make sure that the size of the bung fitted perfectly because whilst carrying out experiment I found that the size of the bung wasn't the correct size and so I had to push the bung in every time. Another method I could have used which would have been a little more accurate in my opinion is to have: Taken readings at regular time intervals Put the results in a table and work out the loss in mass for each reading Repeat with stronger acid solutions but always with the same amount of calcium carbonate The volume of the acid always kept the same, only concentration increased To improve the experiment, I could have used more accurate apparatus, for example, a more accurate measuring cylinder. If I were to carry out further investigation on the rates of reaction I would try and measure how temperature would affect the rate of reaction I feel that I would get a set of results, which would be more accurate as when you measure temperature it is easier to obtain an accurate set of results. ...read more.

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