• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The analysis and evaluation of Neutralisation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The analysis and evaluation of Neutralisation An example of neutralisation is this: Acid or Alkali + Base Salt + Water + Hydrogen This investigation will investigate the reaction of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide where these two liquid compounds neutralise each other. We will be monitoring the temperature of the liquids as more of the hydrochloric acid (HCL) is added. Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric acid Sodium Chloride + water NaOH + HCL NaCl + H2O I predict that this reaction will be exothermic as this reaction creates bonds, which will give out heat. The reaction creates bonds between the hydrogen and the hydroxide ions, ie another Hydrogen - Oxygen bond is being formed. H+ + OH - H2O H+ + O - H O H H This formula is called neutralisation. As shown when the hydrogen and hydroxide react together an extra bond is created between the Hydroxide and hydrogen to form water (H2O). The results collected are shown in the table below. We can find out the total amount of energy released in this reaction. This is done by using this equation. 4.2Joules of energy will rise the temperature of 1g of water by 1oC In my experiment there was an temperature increase of 5.1oC. ...read more.

Middle

Another way to reduce this error would to use many different conicals with set amounts in, ie one flask for every reading. This would prove impractical in the lab as there are a limited supply. I think by conducting the experiment this way a higher amount of energy will have been shown to be released. in water. H placed in water. A sodium Hydroxide molecule (NaOH) will release one Na+ and one (OH-) ion when placed in water. This means that one molecule of NaOH and one molecule of of HCl will neutralize each other and produce H20 and a neutral salt Sodium Chloride (NaCl). This means that that to neutralize HCl and NaOH at the same concentration, you need equal amounts of each. The reaction between acid and alkali is exothermic and produces heat. The heat is generated till the reaction takes place, which will occur till equal amounts of acid and alkali are mixed. On adding more acid than the equal amount of the alkali will have the effect of cooling the mixture. In this case the temperature will continue to rise for a longer period before the mixture starts to cooling. On the other hand sulphuric acid molecule (H2SO4) ...read more.

Conclusion

The temperature of the mixture rises as the reaction continues. Equal amounts of acid and alkali are required to form a neutral solution as both hydrochloric acid and Sodium hydroxide have equal number of (H+) ions and (OH-) ions respectively. When the solution is neutral, the reaction will cease and from that point onwards the temperature will start to decrease. The drop in temperature is caused by adding a cool acid to the hot solution. We predict the same results when hydrochloric acid is added to the control alkali, ammonium hydroxide. The equation for the reaction is as follows: HCl + NH30H ---------- H20 + NH3Cl Sulphuric Acid As sulphuric acid is added to sodium hydroxide, the pH of the alkali will decrease as the acid is gradually added to it. You need two molecules of NaOH to neutralise one molecule of H2SO4 and produce the neutral salt Sodium Sulphate Na2SO4. If the same concentration of sulphuric acid is added to twice the volume of sodium hydroxide, the resulting solution is found to have a pH of 7 as the alkali has been neutralized and a neutral solution formed. H2SO4 + 2Na0H &nbs ... To calculate the energy released we have to use the formula: Energy change = Temperature change � total volume � specific heat capacity Concentration of Acid (M) Average Temperature Change (�C) ... Simon Rhodes 11C ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry Investigation on neutralisation reaction.

    5 star(s)

    Number of moles in a solution = Molarity x volume of solution (cm3)/1000 =2x25/1000 =0.05 moles I will need to work out how many moles of water have formed from the solutions. If I haven't then I have just measured the heat of neutralisation for a given mixture and the

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of sodium hydroxide (alkali) on the volume ...

    4 star(s)

    26.3 10 27 Pink 27 Pink 27 Pink 27 12 27.5 Pink 27.5 Pink 27.5 Pink 27.5 14 28 Pink 28 Pink 27.5 Pink 27.8 16 28 Pink 28 Pink 28 Pink 28 18 28.5 Pink 28.5 Pink 28.5 Pink 28.5 20 29 Pink 29 Pink 29 Pink 29 22

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Enthalpy of Neutralisation.

    3 star(s)

    in the mouth digesting sugar, and antacids, which are tablets used to combat acid indigestion. A base is any substance that can neutralize an acid, so an alkali can be called a soluble base as it also dissolves in water.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Heat of Neutralisation - I am going to investigate the heat of neutralisation between ...

    3 star(s)

    Record results in a table. 6. Plot a graph. Volume of alkali added (cm3) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Temperature �C 23 26 27 28.5 29 30 29 28.5 28 27 26.5 PROBLEMS Although the results obtained are accurate there were a few problems/limitations that could be solved by using another method.

  1. To investigate the effect of concentration on the temperature rise, heat evolved and heat ...

    * Temperature - the temperature of the atmosphere should be same throughout the experiments. Keeping it as 20 Co is good. Precautions * When noting the volume of the alkali in the burette, take the lower meniscus as the measure.

  2. Investigation to find out the factors affecting heat of neutralisation, and then choosing one ...

    Instead I used 1M solutions for all chemicals. This should not affect my investigation as long as it is taken into account when calculating the heat of neutralisations, and the calculations are altered accordingly Table 2 HCl (hydrochloric acid) CH3COOH ( ethanoic acid)

  1. To investigate the factors that affect the amount energy produced in neutralisation reactions.

    For a strong acid and a strong base in water, the neutralisation reaction is between the hydrogen and hydroxide ions dissolved in solution: H+ + OH- --> H2O Neutralization is the reaction between an acid and a base in such quantities that only the salt + water are produced and no acid or base remain in the solution.

  2. Investigate a neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

    The concentration of the sodium hydroxide will be constant. I will only use one type of acid, which is hydrochloric acid and one type of alkali, which is sodium hydroxide. The only factor that will vary is the concentration of the hydrochloric acid by diluting it with water in order to investigate in this.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work