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The cardiovascular and lymphatic system

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The cardiovascular and lymphatic system 1. Briefly describe the cardiovascular system. Include the structures within the system and their functions. Label diagrams of the heart and the major blood vessels. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and a network of blood vessels that take blood to and from the heart. The heart is the main force behind the blood flow. The vessels consist of arteries, veins and capillaries. Arteries carry oxygenated blood that is rich in oxygen, to the organs and tissues of the body. Capillaries are very fine thin-walled through which exchange of materials between the blood and tissues occur. The vein usually carries de- oxygenated blood back towards the heart, from where it is pumped to the lungs. The Heart This is a muscular pumping organ that maintains blood circulation, and it's usually equipped with valves to prevent backward flow. The art has four chambers consisting of two relatively thin-walled atria (auricles), which receive blood, and two thicker walled ventricles, which pump blood out. The right hand side of the heart deals only with de- oxygenated blood, and the left-hand side deals with oxygenated blood. ...read more.


In body tissues the reverse happens to release oxygen to the cells. Red blood cells have no nucleus to make more room for haemoglobin. The main role of white blood cells is to defend against disease. They have a big nucleus. They gobble up unwelcome microbes and they produce anti-bodies to fight bacteria. Anti-toxins are produced to neutralise the toxins produced by bacteria. Platelets are small fragments of cells that have no nucleus. Their main function is to help the blood clot at a wound. 4. Describe the lymphatic system. Include the structures within this system and their functions. The structure of the lymphatic system begins in the tissues as a three-dimensional of small blind-ended tubes, the lymphatic, near the blood capillaries. The lymphatic then pass towards the centre of the body along side the arteries and veins, and join together to form the channels of ever-increasing diameter, which empty into veins of the neck. The lymph nodes or lymph glands are swellings of lymphoid tissue containing lymphocytes. The most easily recognised groups of lymph nodes are the cervical, the auxiliary and the inguinal. When an area of the body becomes infected, the nodes draining that area may become swollen, painful and easily felt under the skin because they are responding to the infection by producing antibodies. ...read more.


Some people have veins that dilate easily, causing patches of congestion and redness under the skin. The tiny red streaks are most noticeable in areas in the face where the skin is thin, usually the cheeks and nose. Broken veins can occur at any age and in any type of skin, but they tend to get worse with age, as the capillaries become increasingly fragile. Complimentary therapies which may help is to add 2 drops chamomile or 2 drops rose Otto, or 3 drops cypress oil, to 15g of unperfumed vitamin E cream. Apply daily. German measles. Symptoms include a high temperature, swollen lymph nodes, a pink rash, and possibly conjunctivitis. Most well nourished children with German measles need rest, fluids, and food according to their appetite and something to bring their temperature down if necessary. German measles causes most concern in pregnant women, who should see a doctor if they have been in contact with rubella. A complimentary therapy, which may help, is to add 2 drops of chamomile and 2 drops of lavender to 600ml of tepid water and agitate the water. Sponge the body down. This aromatic water is suitable for children over 4yrs. If you have an electric vaporiser, use the following blend as a fumigant to help prevent the spread: 4 drops tea tree, 4 drops lemon and 4 drops lavender. ...read more.

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