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The causes and effects of El Nino.

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The causes and effects of El Nino El Nino is a global phenomenon and was first noticed on the 1500s when Peruvian fishermen noticed changes in the abundance of fish and species. Many of the sea birds, which fed on the local anchovies suddenly disappeared. Therefore the name El Nino, meaning Christ's child, originated because these winds and general changes occurred. In this essay, I will therefore assess the causes and consequences of such an issue. In normal conditions, heat from the sun warms the equator more than it does at the Poles and at the same time, the winds or jet streams move the heat towards the cooler poles. ...read more.


The diagram below shows the change from Walker Cell to the Southern Oscillation. The convection heating occurs all the time however, El Nino is separated by the change in location of the pool of hot water and convection cell that it causes. El Nino does have an opposite, La Nina, which is where the waters are very cool. Thus the normal winds are in the change between the two. As can be seen from the diagram the effect of El Nino starts from the weak return as the Western winds weaken and the Peruvian coast does not receive its cold currents back. This occurs as air rises (pressure falling) ...read more.


This leads to dead material and plants struggling to survive. The eastern Pacific is more affected because when there is air movement, the air rising over S. America instead of descending. This leads to large storms as well as flooding due to the sea level change. The El Nino of 1997/8 is one of the worst ever seen with its effects seen across the world. Within the Sechura Desert for example, a place that has some of the lowest rainfalls in the world the rainfall from the storms formed a temporary lake which lasted six months. More seriously, the storms caused mudslides within Peru and motorways were ripped up. In conclusion, there are many problems that causes El Nino and is a natural phenomenon that cant be stopped. Although human create it, it has been heightened due to the other factors mentioned. ...read more.

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