• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

the chemistry of the oxides of hydrogen.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Write an essay on the chemistry of the oxides of hydrogen. Oxides of hydrogen are commonly found in our daily lives. In this easy, the chemistry of two kinds of oxide of hydrogen will be discussed in details. They are water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). WATER H2O Structure A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom and one oxygen atom which are join together by covalent bonds. The shape of a water molecule is V-shaped, with a bond angle of 105�. The structure of a water molecules is shown below. Water has a simple molecular structure and water molecules are held by hydrogen bonds. The slightly positive charged hydrogen atom is attracted by the lone pair electrons on the oxygen atoms. Physical Properties Water has a high melting point and boiling point comparing with other substances having simple molecular structure due to the presence of hydrogen bonds between the molecules of water. At one atmospheric pressure, the melting point and boiling point of water is 0�C and 100��C respectively. ...read more.

Middle

Chemical properties Water is involved in many chemical reactions and some reactions and some examples are given below. Reaction with metals Water is involved in many chemical reactions and some examples are given below. Reaction with metals Water can react with reactive metals such as potassium, sodium and calcium to from metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 2K(s)+2H2O(I) --> 2KOH(aq)+H2(g) 2Na(s)+2H2O(I) --> 2NaOH(aq)+H2(g) Ca(s)+2H2O(I) --> Ca(OH)2(aq)+H2(g) When water is in gaseous form, it can also react with magnesium, aluminium, zinc and iron to form metal oxide and hydrogen gas. Mg(s)+H2O(I) --> Zn(s)+H2O(g) Zn(s)+H2O(g) --> ZnO(s)+H2(g) Reaction with s-block metal hydrides All s-block metal hydrides can react with water to form hydroxides and hydrogen. NaH(s)+H2O(1) --> NaOH(aq)+H2(g) CaH2(s)+2H2O(1) --> Ca(OH)2(aq)+H2(g) Reaction with ethene Water can react with ethene to form ethanol. This reaction is catalytic hydration of ethane which is the industrial preparation of ethanol. Reaction with ester Water can undergo a reversible reaction with ester to form alkanol and alkanoic acid Importance of water Water is very important in our daily lives and some examples are given below. ...read more.

Conclusion

This property enables it to be an oxidizing agent (in which the oxidation number of oxygen decreases from to ) and reducing agent (in which the oxidation number of oxygen increases from to 0). Oxidizing property Hydrogen peroxide is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is readily reduced by the following half equation. The oxidation number of oxygen decreases from to . For example, hydrogen peroxide oxidizes iodine to iodine. Reducing property Powerful oxidants such as permanganate ions or chlorine will oxide hydrogen peroxide into oxygen gas by the following half equation. The oxidation number of oxygen increases from to 0. For example, permanganate ions will oxidize hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is also a good reducing agent in alkaline solution. Radical formation Hydrogen peroxide can undergo homolytic bond fission to form radicals. Uses Antiseptics Hydrogen peroxide can kill bacteria and micro-organisms and hence it can be used as antiseptics and contact lens cleaner. Catalyst in addition polymerization Hydrogen peroxide can be used as a catalyst in addition polymerization of chloroethene to form polyvinyl chloride. Bleaching agent Hydrogen peroxide is a mild bleaching agent and it can be a bleaching agent for textile, for example, wool and silk. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere essays

  1. Extraction of Halogens: Iodine and Chlorine.

    On one side brine is in contact with a titanium anode and chloride ions are discharged producing chlorine gas. The sodium ions pass through the membrane into dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The Membrane Cell Electrons are supplied by a steel cathode to the water to liberate hydrogen gas and hydroxide ions.

  2. Chemical Reactions in the Kitchen

    It is said that we are to eat an average of 4-5 eggs every week. This will maintain our cholesterol and fiber. However, if we eat too much eggs or very little, then it will affect the cholesterol in our body by either having low cholesterol because of very little

  1. Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates

    This will make it easier to be thermally decomposed. The metal will also thermally decompose quicker, because the bond can be easily broken. The carbonates that I will be testing in this investigation are: > Zinc Carbonate > Copper Carbonate > Manganese Carbonate > Potassium Carbonate > Sodium Carbonate I am going to use these carbonates as these are what have been supplied to me by my school.

  2. Thermal Decomposition of Metal carbonates

    This will make it easier to be thermally decomposed. The metal will also thermally decompose quicker, because the bond can be easily broken. The level of water in the cylinder drops as carbon dioxide is given off. This is because the carbon in carbon dioxide displaces the hydrogen in the

  1. Electrolysis with water

    At the cathode hydrogen gas bubbles off, because of this reaction: [image012.gif] 4H+ + 4e� 2H2 At the anode - Hydroxide ions give up their electrons move readily than sulphate ions, so O2 and H2O are formed. The oxygen bubbles off and sulphate ions remain in the solution.

  2. Investigating the effect of the temperature of hydrochloric acid on its rate of reaction ...

    I found it very hard to submerge the open side of the cylinder whilst it was full without letting any air out, however, due to its large surface area. This meant that I would not be able to measure accurate results, so it could compromise the quality of my results.

  1. Extraction of metals and Alloys.

    Metals above carbon in the reactivity series can only be extracted by electrolysis. With the discovery of electricity in the nineteenth century, this allowed the extraction of more reactive metals. Aluminium has been extracted since around 1870. (3000 years since they found iron and 6000 years since they found bronze).

  2. Chemistry- Earth, its structure and atmosphere

    The formation of volcanoes: 1. 2. Magma rises through cracks or weaknesses in the Earth's crust. 3. Pressure builds up inside the Earth. 4. When this pressure is released, as a result of plate movement, magma explodes to the surface causing a volcanic eruption.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work