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the chemistry of the oxides of hydrogen.

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Introduction

Write an essay on the chemistry of the oxides of hydrogen. Oxides of hydrogen are commonly found in our daily lives. In this easy, the chemistry of two kinds of oxide of hydrogen will be discussed in details. They are water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). WATER H2O Structure A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom and one oxygen atom which are join together by covalent bonds. The shape of a water molecule is V-shaped, with a bond angle of 105�. The structure of a water molecules is shown below. Water has a simple molecular structure and water molecules are held by hydrogen bonds. The slightly positive charged hydrogen atom is attracted by the lone pair electrons on the oxygen atoms. Physical Properties Water has a high melting point and boiling point comparing with other substances having simple molecular structure due to the presence of hydrogen bonds between the molecules of water. At one atmospheric pressure, the melting point and boiling point of water is 0�C and 100��C respectively. ...read more.

Middle

Chemical properties Water is involved in many chemical reactions and some reactions and some examples are given below. Reaction with metals Water is involved in many chemical reactions and some examples are given below. Reaction with metals Water can react with reactive metals such as potassium, sodium and calcium to from metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 2K(s)+2H2O(I) --> 2KOH(aq)+H2(g) 2Na(s)+2H2O(I) --> 2NaOH(aq)+H2(g) Ca(s)+2H2O(I) --> Ca(OH)2(aq)+H2(g) When water is in gaseous form, it can also react with magnesium, aluminium, zinc and iron to form metal oxide and hydrogen gas. Mg(s)+H2O(I) --> Zn(s)+H2O(g) Zn(s)+H2O(g) --> ZnO(s)+H2(g) Reaction with s-block metal hydrides All s-block metal hydrides can react with water to form hydroxides and hydrogen. NaH(s)+H2O(1) --> NaOH(aq)+H2(g) CaH2(s)+2H2O(1) --> Ca(OH)2(aq)+H2(g) Reaction with ethene Water can react with ethene to form ethanol. This reaction is catalytic hydration of ethane which is the industrial preparation of ethanol. Reaction with ester Water can undergo a reversible reaction with ester to form alkanol and alkanoic acid Importance of water Water is very important in our daily lives and some examples are given below. ...read more.

Conclusion

This property enables it to be an oxidizing agent (in which the oxidation number of oxygen decreases from to ) and reducing agent (in which the oxidation number of oxygen increases from to 0). Oxidizing property Hydrogen peroxide is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is readily reduced by the following half equation. The oxidation number of oxygen decreases from to . For example, hydrogen peroxide oxidizes iodine to iodine. Reducing property Powerful oxidants such as permanganate ions or chlorine will oxide hydrogen peroxide into oxygen gas by the following half equation. The oxidation number of oxygen increases from to 0. For example, permanganate ions will oxidize hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is also a good reducing agent in alkaline solution. Radical formation Hydrogen peroxide can undergo homolytic bond fission to form radicals. Uses Antiseptics Hydrogen peroxide can kill bacteria and micro-organisms and hence it can be used as antiseptics and contact lens cleaner. Catalyst in addition polymerization Hydrogen peroxide can be used as a catalyst in addition polymerization of chloroethene to form polyvinyl chloride. Bleaching agent Hydrogen peroxide is a mild bleaching agent and it can be a bleaching agent for textile, for example, wool and silk. ...read more.

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