• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Costs of Smoking.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Costs of Smoking Smoking has been an issue for many years. Even though children and teenagers are exposed to large amounts of anti-smoking propaganda, many still do smoke, and will continue to smoke for the rest of their lives, struggling to kick the habit. Smoking has more then fifty illnesses and twenty causes of death associated with it. It has been estimated that in England 284 000 patients are admitted to the NHS hospitals each year due to illnesses caused by smoking (Godfrey et al). These NHS beds could serve a more productive purpose. Smokers have an increased risk of many diseases, including gum disease, diabetes (type 2), osteoporosis and tuberculosis (American Council 1997). However these are not the only risks of smoking. Smokers also have an increased risk of cancer and heart disease. For example, smoking causes over 80% of all lung cancer deaths (CRC Cancerstats 2001). ...read more.

Middle

This means the heart has to beat harder to pump the same volume of blood and supply the right amount of oxygen around the body. Smoking also causes arterial disease as cigarette smokers have raised levels of fibrinogen and platelets (which are involved in the formation in blood clots), leaving the blood stickier. The carbon monoxide also attaches to haemoglobin more easily then oxygen reducing the amount of oxygen available to body tissues. These factors make smokers more at risk of developing a form of arterial disease. A thrombosis (clot) is more likely to form, which may lead to a fatal heart attack or a stroke. Illness is not the only effect that smoking has on people. It also has a negative effect on social aspects for example it leaves them and their belongings smelling of smoke. It also causes wrinkles to appear faster then if they did not smoke as it dries out the skin. ...read more.

Conclusion

80% of the cost of a packet of cigarettes is tax. According to the government, most of this is spent on the NHS, for example in March 2000 when cigarettes rose in price by 25 pence, an extra �300 million a year was spent on the NHS. However, this raise in tax threatens the jobs of some of the workers in the tobacco industry. Without this contribution other taxes would have to go up to replace this revenue, and the jobs the tobacco industry supplies would no longer exist. However, this doesn't balance all the negatives of smoking. In conclusion, the costs of smoking are very serious. Not only does smoking have serious effects on a person's health; it also costs them a lot of money and can create a negative image of the type of person they are. It seems the main reason people start smoking is some of their influential friends do it and they want to be part of the crowd. The other factors, such as relaxation, seem to be more to do with relieving withdrawal symptoms more then actual relief the cigarette causes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Abortion case study

    3 star(s)

    A minimum of two doctors have to give their consent on whether or not the abortion is justified, and the abortion must take place in a hospital or a licensed clinic. Facts on abortions * Worldwide- There are approximately 46 million abortions annually.

  2. emzymes in industry

    at 99% which helps to explain why many breeds of jellyfish are near on transparent, and the human body is 75% water, although there are great differences in the amounts of water, it is clear that water is in and involved in everything.

  1. The costs of smoking

    "This increases heart rate and blood pressure and decreases the blood supply to the extremities - for example, the hands and feet."(2). Therefore smoker are more likely to suffer from heart disease than people who do not smoke. * Nicotine also affects the platelets by making them stickier which, "can lead to an increased risk of blood clots forming."(3).

  2. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    A big issue with cigarettes is passive smoking. Smoking cigarettes has negative biological, physiological and social implications on not only the person that smoked but also any body near by is susceptible to inhaling and conflicting disease. Smoking is considered a negative externality because it has a bad impact on the third person.

  1. In my case study I will explain and supply a lot of information on ...

    Cyanide- A deadly poison Cancer 46,500 Heart, stroke, circulation 40,300 Lung diseases, COPD 34,300 Digestive diseases, ulcers 1,900 Total 123,000 Table showing Uks smoking rate! Cigarettes- every single one of them contains over 4,000 chemicals and around 60 seriously harmful chemicals i.e: Benzene, Cyanide, Cadmium, Ammonia to name some of the most harmful chemicals.

  2. Research into smoking essay

    tobacco industry, were more likely to smoke than those who weren't.? (6) It?s a wonder why these images don?t bring up the negatives of smoking; ?from the yellow stains on your fingers and the stench of your breath, or the long-term serious consequences from smoking.? (7)

  1. Biology smoking coursework. Should smoking be banned in public places?

    skin perfusion 3?9 months Cough, wheeze, and breathing improve; lung function may improve by up to 10% 1 year Risk of myocardial infarction falls to about half that of a smoker 10 years Risk of lung cancer falls to about half that of a smoker 15 years Risk of myocardial

  2. All about Tuberculosis!

    After two months of treatment, another saliva sample is analyzed to make sure the drugs are working. At the end of treatment, a final saliva sample is analyzed to make sure the germs are gone. Even if DOTS is not available in your area to give you medical support to

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work