• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Costs of Smoking.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Costs of Smoking Smoking has been an issue for many years. Even though children and teenagers are exposed to large amounts of anti-smoking propaganda, many still do smoke, and will continue to smoke for the rest of their lives, struggling to kick the habit. Smoking has more then fifty illnesses and twenty causes of death associated with it. It has been estimated that in England 284 000 patients are admitted to the NHS hospitals each year due to illnesses caused by smoking (Godfrey et al). These NHS beds could serve a more productive purpose. Smokers have an increased risk of many diseases, including gum disease, diabetes (type 2), osteoporosis and tuberculosis (American Council 1997). However these are not the only risks of smoking. Smokers also have an increased risk of cancer and heart disease. For example, smoking causes over 80% of all lung cancer deaths (CRC Cancerstats 2001). ...read more.

Middle

This means the heart has to beat harder to pump the same volume of blood and supply the right amount of oxygen around the body. Smoking also causes arterial disease as cigarette smokers have raised levels of fibrinogen and platelets (which are involved in the formation in blood clots), leaving the blood stickier. The carbon monoxide also attaches to haemoglobin more easily then oxygen reducing the amount of oxygen available to body tissues. These factors make smokers more at risk of developing a form of arterial disease. A thrombosis (clot) is more likely to form, which may lead to a fatal heart attack or a stroke. Illness is not the only effect that smoking has on people. It also has a negative effect on social aspects for example it leaves them and their belongings smelling of smoke. It also causes wrinkles to appear faster then if they did not smoke as it dries out the skin. ...read more.

Conclusion

80% of the cost of a packet of cigarettes is tax. According to the government, most of this is spent on the NHS, for example in March 2000 when cigarettes rose in price by 25 pence, an extra �300 million a year was spent on the NHS. However, this raise in tax threatens the jobs of some of the workers in the tobacco industry. Without this contribution other taxes would have to go up to replace this revenue, and the jobs the tobacco industry supplies would no longer exist. However, this doesn't balance all the negatives of smoking. In conclusion, the costs of smoking are very serious. Not only does smoking have serious effects on a person's health; it also costs them a lot of money and can create a negative image of the type of person they are. It seems the main reason people start smoking is some of their influential friends do it and they want to be part of the crowd. The other factors, such as relaxation, seem to be more to do with relieving withdrawal symptoms more then actual relief the cigarette causes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Abortion case study

    3 star(s)

    The time in which a foetus can live outside of the womb usually begins from 28weeks. However, this time may become earlier up to about 24 weeks. However, this law has its own limitations due to scientific achievements. Advancements in science make this time in which a foetus can live

  2. Factors Affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease.

    As talked about above, before passing the menopause, women have a variety of hormones that protect the arteries. So men between the ages of 35 and 44 are 6 times more likely to sustain a heart attack than women. Women after the age of 65 are just as likely to suffer from heart disease as men.

  1. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    The final component is nicotine. Nicotine causes the blood vessels to narrow. This increases the blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for stroke. It also increases the build up of plaque deposits along the inside walls of the arteries or blood vessels.

  2. Should people with diabetes 2 receive medical treatment?

    The struts of the ladder have a backbone made of sugar and phosphate. Attached to each sugar and phosphate, forming the rungs, is one of four types of molecules called bases. The bases have the letters A, C T and G.

  1. In my case study I will explain and supply a lot of information on ...

    Formaldehyde- This is used to preserve dead bodies. Cadmium- Another highly poisonous material used in batteries. Shellac- This substance becomes a wood vanish when mixed with certain types of alcohol. Benzene- This is used as a solvent in chemical production and fuel production.

  2. The costs of smoking

    "This increases heart rate and blood pressure and decreases the blood supply to the extremities - for example, the hands and feet."(2). Therefore smoker are more likely to suffer from heart disease than people who do not smoke. * Nicotine also affects the platelets by making them stickier which, "can lead to an increased risk of blood clots forming."(3).

  1. Research into smoking essay

    Its nonsense to say ?just a try? or ?just going to do this once, never again?. Once you enter the ?smoking world? it will be really hard to quit or even it may forever be with you until the end.

  2. Biology smoking coursework. Should smoking be banned in public places?

    Smoking does not only affect the health of mothers and unborn babies, but it also affects other people, such as children and partners in the immediate environment. This is a concern for all healthcare workers, particularly midwives as they provide healthcare and advice.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work