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The Earth's Atmosphere and Air Pollution

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Introduction

´╗┐The Earth's Atmosphere and Air Poll ution Approximately 4600 million years ago the Earth formed, when hot, dense masses of gas and dust around the sun collapsed on itself - this was caused by gravity. A mass of gas and dust got hotter and hotter as the particles were pulled in and squashed together. It then began to cool down, solidify and break up into chunks called planets - one of which was Earth.[1] Around 4.5 billion years ago. The early atmosphere most likely formed from the huge volumes of gases given out by volcanoes. These gases were mainly Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour but smaller proportions of other gases such as Ammonia and methane. Ammonia was broken down by sunlight and by its reaction with oxygen, this formed nitrogen. Nitrogen is an unreactive gas. Once released into the atmosphere, nitrogen reacts with other substances only with difficulty. So the levels of nitrogen in the atmosphere increased until they reached today?s level. The early atmosphere was probably mostly carbon dioxide, with little or no oxygen. There were smaller proportions of water vapour, ammonia and methane. As the Earth cooled down, most of the water vapour condensed and formed the oceans. ...read more.

Middle

When organisms die the carbon is recycled so that it can be used by future generations. The model that describes the processes involved is called the carbon cycle. Carbon enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide from respiration and combustion. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by producers to make carbohydrates in photosynthesis. Animals feed on the plant passing the carbon compounds along the food chain. Most of the carbon they consume is exhaled as carbon dioxide formed during respiration. The animals and plants eventually die. The dead organisms are eaten by decomposers and the carbon in their bodies is returned to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. In some conditions decomposition is blocked. The plant and animal material may then be available as fossil fuel in the future for combustion. Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food and grow. The carbon becomes part of the plant. Plants that die and are buried may turn into fossil fuels made of carbon like coal and oil over millions of years. When humans burn fossil fuels, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. [6] The processes releasing and absorbing carbon dioxide form part of the carbon dioxide. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also feels actually contains small amounts of sulphur compounds. These impurities form sulphur dioxide when the fuel is burned. This gas dissolves into water in the clouds, forming acid rain. The acids make rain more acidic than normal. Such acid rain erodes stonework and corrodes metals. Aching killed trees, and living things in the river and lakes. NOx causes acid rain too. It can also react with other atmospheric pollutants, particularly in sunlight, to produce photochemical smog. Vehicles on the road produce 14% of the world’s carbon emissions. [11]Catalytic converters are fitted into the exhaust system on some vehicles, as they release large amounts of atmospheric pollutants levels of these must be controls through reduced damage to human health and the environment. The main admissions of a car engine are: nitrogen gas(most of this would pass straight through the car engine), carbon dioxide and water vapour. But because the combustion process is ever perfect, some small amounts of more harmful emissions are also produced in car engines such as carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxides.[12] Carbon Monoxide + Nitrogen Oxide ï Nitrogen + Carbon Dioxide ________________ [1] http://www.s-cool.co.uk/gcse/chemistry/the-earth-and-the-atmosphere/revise-it/changes-to-the-earth [2]http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/earth_sea_atmosphere/earth_sea_atmosphererev3.shtml [3] Saunders, A&N (2011) GSCE Chemistry, Oxford University Press, pg 22 [4] Saunders, A&N (2011) GSCE Chemistry, Oxford University Press, pg [5]http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa_pre_2011/oils/changesrev7.shtml [6] http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/images/carboncycle.jpg [7] http://eo.ucar.edu/kids/green/cycles6.htm [8] http://library.thinkquest.org/11226/why.htm [9] http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=deforestation-and-global-warming [10] Saunders, A&N (2011) GSCE Chemistry, Oxford University Press, pg 25 [11] http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=deforestation-and-global-warming [12] http://auto.howstuffworks.com/catalytic-converter3.htm ...read more.

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