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The effect of concentration on a reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry Coursework PLANNING OBTAINING ANALYSING EVALUATING SPG The effect of concentration on a reaction Planning I am going to be investigating how changing the concentration of sulphuric acid will affect the rate that it will react with magnesium ribbon. Apparatus Sulphuric acid (volumes: 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 + 2.5) A roll of magnesium ribbon cut in to strips 1cm long Beaker Thermometer Stopwatch Safety goggles Safety I will wear safety goggles at all times during the experiment. I will follow the necessary lab rules while working. What I am going to measure I am going to measure the amount of time the reaction takes and the temperature change (if any) during the reaction. I will measure the amount of time it takes by using a stopwatch and timing the reaction till all signs of a reaction are over (such as bubbles). I will measure the temperature of the different volumes of sulphuric acid with a thermometer before and after the reaction and work out the difference. Fair test To make it a fair test I am going to keep the length of magnesium ribbon and the amount of sulphuric acid I use the same. ...read more.

Middle

More collisions mean more reactions. Scientific Knowledge The collision theory describes the way temperature, concentration and surface area of the reactant affects the rate of reaction, by affecting collisions between particles. Particles react when they collide with sufficient energy. At a higher temperature collisions are more frequent and also have more energy because the particles are moving faster. Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. At a higher temperature there will be enough energy to make the reaction happen. This initial energy is known as activation energy and its needed to break the initial bonds. At a higher concentration collisions are again more frequent, as there are more reactant particles in the liquid. This means that there are more likely to be collisions and so the reaction is speeded up. In our case increasing the concentration of the sulphuric acid is increasing the chances of it bumping in to and reacting with the magnesium therefore creating a more vigorous reaction. Forming this equation: Sulphuric acid + magnesium + magnesium chloride + hydrogen H SO (1) + MG(5) = MGSO (1) + H 2H + SO - + MG+ = MG +SO - + H+ Preliminary work Preliminary method * Cut the magnesium ribbon 1cm long ...read more.

Conclusion

I had two anomalous results, which could have been because of inaccurate readings or the experiment not being fair. It could also have been due to inaccurate measurements. (I have circled these on the graph). My method was quite suitable although I do admit that I didn't follow it very precisely. To improve my results next time I could try more repeat readings or following my instructions more carefully. My results are fairly reliable however the anomalous results show that it could have been better. My results show that they support my conclusion because as the concentration goes up the time goes down. The limitations of evidence making a firm conclusion are that I could improve my method by writing in to use sand paper to use on the magnesium. This could get any impurities off the magnesium, which could interfere with my results. Another experiment I could do which could increase the reliability of my results is with hydrochloric acid and magnesium. Hydrochloric acid and magnesium In this experiment I am going to see how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid will affect the rate it reacts with magnesium. I will be measuring the amount of gas produced in this experiment. Method Put 25cm of hydrochloric acid in a conical flask. 1 Ruth Staple 10B ...read more.

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