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The Effect of Concentration on the initial rate of a chemical reaction

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Introduction

Matthew Jaroszewicz Investigation: The Effect of Concentration on the initial rate of a chemical reaction The Reaction: Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Equipment Chemicals * Graduated gas syringe (+/- 0.5cm3) Magnesium Ribbon * Conical Flask 2 Molar hydrochloric acid * Thermometer * Stopwatch * Clamp/Stand * Burettes (+/- 0.05cm3) Diagram The Magnesium ribbon is to be put into the conical flask of Hydrochloric Acid and every 10 seconds the total amount of Hydrogen produced is read for a total of 2 minutes. I will make the test as fair as possible by making sure that the controlled variables are very much controlled. Controlled Variables Volume of acid - I have chosen to use 20cm3 of acid. I came to this decision because in preliminary experiments I used less acid and found that the reaction was too slow but too much acid would be a waste. 20cm3 would be perfect and it divides easily, therefore calculating how to dilute the acid precisely will be easier. Temperature of acid - if the temperature is increased; the rate of reaction shall also increase due to an increase of kinetic energy in the particles (greater frequency of collisions). The experiment will be done at room temperature because it is the most convenient temperature and the easiest to keep constant. Apparatus - the apparatus must be used, other this could effect the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

By looking at the results, we realised that using magnesium granules would be too fast reacting and also be inaccurate. The syringes to be used only go up to a maximum of 100 cm3. Two measurements were taken and an average of those was used to ensure an equal result. These averages were used on the graph so that the graph would be more reliable. H2 produced every 10s (cm3) Concentration 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 M1 55.0 71.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 2.0M M2 55.0 69.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 Ave. 55.0 70.0 73.5 73.5 73.5 73.5 73.5 73.5 73.5 73.5 73.5 73.5 M1 24.0 42.0 56.0 66.0 71.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 73.0 1.5M M2 37.0 58.0 66.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 Ave. 30.5 50.0 61.0 68.0 70.5 71.5 71.5 71.5 71.5 71.5 71.5 71.5 M1 15.0 27.0 35.0 43.0 50.0 55.0 58.0 60.0 65.0 67.0 70.0 70.0 1.0M M2 20.0 35.0 46.0 55.0 60.0 64.0 66.0 69.0 71.0 71.0 71.0 71.0 Ave. 17.5 31.0 40.5 49.0 55.0 59.5 62.0 64.5 68.0 69.0 70.5 70.5 M1 2.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 20.0 23.0 26.0 0.5M M2 2.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 13.0 15.0 17.0 20.0 22.0 25.0 27.0 Ave. ...read more.

Conclusion

This equipment is advanced and may not be as available as the equipment currently been used. The reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid is an exothermic reaction, therefore in the experiments with the more concentrated acid, the heat would increase the rate of reaction due to the particles have more kinetic energy, increasing collisions per second. In the reactions of higher concentrations, the reaction was over within 30 seconds, whereas the lower concentrations were over in well over 2 minutes. Therefore, the higher concentration reaction had less time for that heat to dissipate out, altering the results more. Nevertheless, in the lower concentrations, the reaction took a lot more time, giving it more time for the heat to dissipate. This would not alter the results as much. Still, I do believe that the results are reliable and could be used to further other work in the same area. On the rate of reaction graph, you would expect it to be a straight-line graph, but instead, it is a curve. This is because it is an exothermic reaction and for the higher concentrations, there are other factors effecting the results (see above). To provide additional relevant evidence, I would choose to closely investigate the reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid at low concentrations (circled on the rates of reaction graph). This is because these reactions are only effected very little by the exothermic heat factor. This is why the results of very low concentrations would prove to be more reliable and accurate to see the effect on different concentrations. ...read more.

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