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The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction.

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Introduction

The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction Preliminary Experiment Apparatus: Conical Flask Bug with delivery tube Three Measuring Cylinders Trough Water 2M hydrochloric acid Calcium Carbonate Chips (marble chips) Diagram Plan ?The apparatus should be set up as shown in the diagram ?To obtain the inverted measuring cylinder, one must be taken, filled to the brim with water and then inverted into the trough of water. ?The other end of the bung with the delivery tubing should be carefully placed under the inverted cylinder of water. ?100ml of hydrochloric acid should be measured out in one of the measuring cylinders and poured into the conical flask. ?10g of calcium carbonate chips should be weighed on the electronic top pan balance and than added to the conical flask containing the hydrochloric acid. ?As soon as they are added, the bung should immediately be placed onto the top of the flask and the stopwatch should be started. ?The amount of carbon dioxide gas evolved should be read off the scale down the measuring cylinder every 30 seconds, for two minutes. The readings should be noted. ?Once this has been done, the hydrochloric acid should be disposed of. Another 10g of marble chips should be weighed. ?The 1M acid solution should then be made. This solution consists of 50ml of hydrochloric acid and 50ml of distilled water. The water should be measured in a different cylinder to the acid to prevent contamination. ?The process should then be repeated. ?The experiment should then be repeated as stated before except the solution of hydrochloric acid should be changed to 0.5M. This composed of 25ml of hydrochloric acid and 75ml of distilled water. Method The experiment was carried out as per the plan, except it was found that using 10g of the marble chips created too much carbon dioxide gas and so the readings went off of the scale. ...read more.

Middle

With a bigger surface area reaction is more likely. 4. Pressure As the pressure increases the particles are more squashed together and so more collisions are imminent. How to overcome these factors 1. Temperature - the experiment can be performed on the same day so that the temperature remains the same. 2. Size of Solid Particles - this can be overcome by trying to approximately pick the same sized particles. 3. Catalysts - a catalyst will not be used in this investigation. 4. Pressure- this is not involved in this particular experiment. Experiment Apparatus: Conical flask Electric top pan balance Bung with delivery tubing Water (tap and distilled) Water Trough (tub) 2M hydrochloric acid Three measuring cylinders Calcium carbonate chips Diagram of Apparatus Plan � The apparatus should be set up as per the diagram. � The room temperature should be recorded. � 100ml of the 2M acid should then be measured out into the conical flask using one measuring cylinder. � 5g of calcium carbonate chips should then be weighed using the electronic top pan balance. � The delivery tubing should be underneath the inverted measuring cylinder of water. � The chips should then be poured into the conical flask and the bung should be immediately placed into the conical flask. � The stopwatch should be started. � The inverted measuring cylinder should be held completely upright so that an accurate reading can be taken. � A reading should be taken off the side of the cylinder every twenty seconds. � This experiment should be timed for two minutes. � After this period, the acid and the chips should be disposed of and new chips should be used for each experiment. � The experiment should then be repeated, except that the concentration should be changed to 1.5M. � Caution must be taken to make sure that the measuring cylinder for the water and the measuring cylinder for the acid remain separate to prevent contamination. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some carbon dioxide would also have been lost in the acid solution because carbon dioxide is slightly soluble in water. The range of concentrations used was sufficient, but if the experiment was to be repeated, 1.25M and 0.25M acid solutions could be used. The method was reliable but the period the experiment was timed for was too short because in the graphs of carbon dioxide evolved against time, only the initial parts of the found. A longer period of four minutes should be adequate to give the part of the graph that curves. To improve this experiment, the temperature should be kept constant for fair testing and the calcium carbonate chips should be kept the same. To keep the temperature constant, the experiment should be performed on the same day. To overcome the issue of particle size, powdered chips could be used. In the graphs of the volume of carbon dioxide evolved against the time the graphs for the 1.5M and 1M have troughs in them. This indicates that the reaction took some time to get started. This may have also been down to the fact that there were different sized calcium carbonate particles and so the results were affected in accordance to the sizes of the chips in the repeat readings. Also, to obtain better accuracy when taking the measurements on the inverted measuring cylinder, a gas syringe should be used instead. Furthermore, to measure out half a millilitre of water/acid, a more accurate method of measuring could be used, such as a measuring cylinder with a smaller scale. The range of concentrations used was adequate, but perhaps a more concentrated acid solution could be used if the experiment was to be repeated (higher than 2M). The repeat readings were not all very close to each other, which demonstrated that there were experimental errors. So as to overcome this problem, the experiment should be repeated five times so that more accurate and precise results can be obtained. Overall the experiment went well but these were some major errors that need to be addressed if the experiment was to be repeated. ...read more.

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