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The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction.

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Introduction

The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction Aim: To investigate the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid and the effect of varying the concentration upon the precipitation of sulphur. 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l) 2HCl(aq) + Na2S2O3(aq) Background Theory: For many reactions involving liquids or gasses, increasing the concentration of the reactants increases the rate of reaction. The collision theory states that in order for any reaction to happen, the particles must first collide. If the concentration is higher, the chances of collisions is greater resulting in an increase in rate of reaction. Hypothesis: * Increase in concentration increases the rate of reaction because there is an increase in the likelihood of effective collisions. Therefore if the concentration doubles, the rate of reaction should also double. Apparatus: * Conical flask * Measuring cylinder * Stopwatch * Paper with cross. Chemicals: * Sodium thiosulphate solution * Dilute hydrochloric acid. Method: As on sheet. Diagram: Results: Volume of Sodium Thiosulphate Solution (cm ) ...read more.

Middle

* The rate of stirring the contents in the conical flask could have influenced the rate of reaction as it could have increased it. Possible solutions: * The solution should be stirred at a constant rate so that the rate or reaction does not get affected by it. * Use a burette in order to get a more accurate reading of the solution to decrease the percentage error. * Repeat the experiment more than once in order to average out the results and get a more accurate result. The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Reaction Aim: To investigate the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid and the effect of varying the temperature upon the precipitation of sulphur. 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l) 2HCl(aq) + Na2S2O3(aq) Background Theory: Increasing the Temperature increases reaction rates because of the disproportionately large increase in the number of high energy collisions. It is only these collisions (possessing at least the activation energy for the reaction) ...read more.

Conclusion

From the graph, I have obtained these results below in order to prove or disprove my hypothesis. Temperature of The Mixture In The Flask ( C) Rate of Reaction (/s) 20 0.0058 40 0.017 30 0.015 60 0.035 40/20 = 2 0.017/0.0058 = 2.93 60/30 = 2 0.035/0.015 = 2.33 The results I have obtained from my graph does not prove my hypothesis to be correct. Evaluation: Possible Errors: Flask (50cm� with + 0.3cm�) = + 0.6% error Measuring cylinder (2 of 100cm� with + 1cm� error) = + 2% error Measuring cylinder (10cm� with + 0.2cm�) = + 2% error Stop watch (+ 0.05) Thermometer (100� with + 1�) = + 1% Total percentage error for this experiment was calculated to be, + 6.08%. * Wind from the air-conditioning system could have reduced the temperature. * Parallax errors could have occurred while taking reading off the thermometer and measuring cylinders as they were probably not at eye level. * The thermometer absorbed heat from the solution. Possible solutions: * Carry out the experiment in an area with no wind currents. * Try to avoid any parallax errors by taking readings at eye level from measuring cylinders and thermometers. ...read more.

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