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The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Magnesium [Mg] and Hydrochloric acid [Hcl]

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Introduction

The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Magnesium [Mg] and Hydrochloric acid [Hcl] By Mohammed Thamid Azad Candidate Number- 5021 Centre Number- 13317 Rates of Reaction INTRODUCTION - This coursework will be investigating the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction between a metal-Magnesium [Mg] and Hydrochloric Acid [HCL]. Rate of reaction is the measurement of how quickly a reaction is progressing. It also includes how much products are being formed and what portion is being used up. Rate of reaction just means 'the speed of the reaction'. It is measured by the rate of formation of a product. When you are doing an experiment in order to make a product you should know how long the reaction takes to complete, before the product is produced. This coursework will be experimenting the reaction speed of Magnesium Metal with Hydrochloric acid. I will be observing 'the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid to measure how long a solution takes to react within different level of concentrations. 'In the experiments it is predicted that the reactions are not at a steady rate, meaning that they begin at a curtain speed then decrease until they stop which then decreases the concentration of reactants. AIM- To investigate the effect of concentration of acid on rate of reaction Mg(s) +2HCl (aq) --> MgCl2(aq) +H2(g) HYPOTHESIS/PREDICTION I predict that if there is more concentration within a solution then it means there are more particles of reactant moving around water molecules which increase the chance of collisions between the particles happening. Therefore I my hypothesis is that the more concentration there is within a given space then the more chance there Is of a successful collision increasing the rate of reaction. THEORY Rate Equation: Average rate= change in the volume of hydrogen/ time for the change to happen Factors that affect rate: Collision Theory (KE) ...read more.

Middle

We will be measuring out the lengths by using a ruler as it will be giving us an idea of how long the magnesium strip will be. The structure of the magnesium strip we will be the same meaning that it will not be bent in any way shape or form and will be inserted in the conical flask the same way. The volume of acid is always going to be 20cm cubed. We will try our best to keep this the same as it could affect the accuracy of the experiment and may change the concentration of the acids making the experiment not accurate. We will be using a measuring cylinder in order to keep the volume of the acid the same. The sand paper will be used to scratch of any excess rust building up on the surface of the magnesium strip to make sure it is pure and not oxidised. On our graph we will be using 3 reps to measure how long it takes for every concentration to react with the magnesium; this is also used to ensure accuracy and reliability. The 3 reps will rule out any anomalies. If there are small anomalies we are going to leave it however if they are large we will be changing them around so that our error bars remain small. We will be measuring the volume of hydrogen every 10 seconds up until 60, however if the reaction finishes before the time period we will terminate the experiment keeping the volume the same. We will change the water for every experiment as the reaction gives of exothermic reaction heat and could transfer to the water making it warmer. This strategy measures the loss of gas as the reaction happens. It is done by the scales measuring the loss of mass as the reaction happens and the to make sure it is accurate we use time intervals to see how long it takes for it to loose mass and the cotton wool is ...read more.

Conclusion

The results vary as some points have small difference this means the reliability is not that high. This graph has a positive trend on rate of reaction against concentration. This graph is displaying a first order reaction as the concentration is having a positive effect on the rate of reaction. Evaluation On the graph it is shows how the concentration of the acid has had a straight influence on the rate of reaction. As there is a higher amount of concentration this increases the rate of reaction, and is displayed as a second order graph. While carrying out the investigation we realised that there were minor mistakes affecting the results such as the error bars and the equipment which was used. Other issues present could've been the fact of the conical flask not being reliable enough as there is a second of hesitance when adding the magnesium as it depends how fast we closed the rubber top and therefore some hydrogen may be able to escape, this then has a direct effect on the error bars as it depends how big they are. However if we used different theory's preventing these causes I believe that the errors would've been smaller as there are less errors causing problems with the results. If we used a water bath to control the temperature of the conical flash I believe it would have been more reliable, because people were changing the temperature of the room as they opened the doors and windows. To keep the dilutions as accurate as possible we should have used scales measuring how much we used for every solution. I believe that even though we sanded down the magnesium it would have been more accurate if we weighed how much we were using for each experiment to keep the reliability high. We could've used the displacement of water theory which used the gas syringe preventing any gas from escaping. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chemistry Coursework: Rates of Reaction Name: Mohammed Tahmid Azad ...read more.

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Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/04/2013

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