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The effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of amylase and starch reaction.

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Introduction

The effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of amylase and starch reaction. Introduction An enzyme is a protein that is produced by cells and act as a catalyst in specific biochemical reactions. An enzyme is a biological catalyst, which increases the rate of reaction. A catalyst can be used over and over again in a chemical reaction. Enzymes are similar but they denature easily. There are 2 main types of enzymes called breakers and builders. Breaker-enzymes speed up the reaction of a large molecule being broken down into smaller molecules. These enzymes are useful in digestion. There are 3 main enzymes in our digestive system; carbohydrates which can break down carbohydrates into glucose, protease which break down proteins into amino acids and lipase which breaks down fat into fatty acids and glycerol. Builder-enzymes speed up the rate of reaction of smaller molecules joining together to make larger ones. These enzymes build important molecules inside our cells. It speeds up chemical reactions; each enzyme has a unique shape that determines its function. One enzyme works on one type of substrate. The enzyme, Amylase has a shape that allows itself to wrap around starch (substrate) and cut it up into individual glucose units. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus For this experiment I need specific equipment: -Safety goggles -30ml of Amylase -50ml of Starch -Pipette -10ml measuring cylinder -50ml beaker -Glass stirring rod -Spotting Tile -Iodine Solution -Two boiling tubes -Stopwatch Method 1. Firstly using a pipette I will pour 10ml of Starch into a 10ml measuring cylinder and then pour it into a boiling tube. 2. Then I will thoroughly rinse out the pipette and measuring cylinder with water. 3. Then I will put the amount of amylase needed in the measuring cylinder again using the pipette to make it exact and then transfer it to an empty boiling tube along with the correct amount of water needed. 4. I'll then add iodine into the boiling tube of 10ml of starch and mix it with a stirring rod. 5. I'll mix the iodine and starch solution with the water and amylase solution and time it with a stopwatch. 6. I will time how long it takes for the enzymes to break down the starch. To be able to tell when this is finished is when the solution goes clear. 7. Once this process finishes I will record my results and repeat it again for my second try, to make it a fair test. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also I could have left some of the solution in the test tube if I didn't wash it properly, to avoid this happening again I could use different test tubes for each time I repeated the process. My measurements are preferably within 5% of the true value. The experiment took place over two days, in which the room temperature could have varied within the two days, making the test unfair. The results were also determined by looking at when the solution turns colourless, however when this process took place I believe that I may have had misinterpretations of the colours If I were to repeat the investigation I would change part of the method by instead of making two attempts I would make three in order to make my results more accurate, this would also get me more information but I would have needed more time to do my experiment. However to be certain this extra work might just give me more of the same information rather than new information. Also if I had more boiling tubes preferably two for each concentration it would have made my results more accurate and my evidence would be more reliable. Generally I didn't meet any difficulties during the investigation I found the whole experiment quite straightforward. ...read more.

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