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The effect of Exercise on Pulse rate

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Introduction

The effect of Exercise on Pulse rate In this experiment I am going to be looking at how exercise affects the pulse rate of the body. By the end of the experiment I hope to have found a connection between exercise and how it affects the pulse rate (for example, does the pulse rated increase or decrease?). I will study this by taking a group of students and asking them to exercise for a short amount of time, taking their pulse before and after this exercise to find out if there is any change in the rate of it. Hypothesis and Biological knowledge The heart is a huge muscle found in the chest. The main use of the heart is to pump blood, which delivers oxygen, glucose and much-needed chemicals to other parts of the body. The muscle making up the heart is called Cardiac muscle; this special muscle does not wear down as other muscle does in the body. This is because it has to constantly beat to keep us alive, so cannot die out and be replaced by new muscle. The cardiac muscle also has another difference to any other muscle that we find in places like our legs or arms, this is that it has it's own beat, moving to make the whole heart pump, this type of muscle is called myogenic muscle, which means (moves on it's own). There are three sections to how the heart pumps. As the heart never stops pumping these three stages carry on in a circle. Diastole is when the muscles of the heart relax. This allows oxygenated blood to rush in to the left atria and de-oxygenated blood in to the right atria. As the blood enters the atrium they swell and the pressure inside them increase. Atria Systole - This process means the contraction of the atria. As the pressure in the atrium increases and more blood rushes in to it there is more and more pressure placed on the valves between the atria and the ventricles. ...read more.

Middle

After the five minutes rest I expect the pulse rate to drop again, either back to what it was before if they are fit, if not then to drop to a lower rate that it was straight after exercise. This is because the heart will be slowing down again as the oxygen and energy isn't needed as much in the places that had been working so hard before. Apparatus * 2 Stop clocks - One to time the amount of time exercising, the other to time 5 minutes after they have stopped exercising. * Step-up steps (1 block high) - To exercise on, for three minutes * 6 pupils - To take pulse rate results from, before, after and five minutes after stopping exercise. Method and Fair tests * The pupil will have their resting pulse rate taken for a minute, (making sure that they have been standing up before hand, as this might also change their pulse rate). * They will exercise (step-ups) for three minutes, trying to keep a constant pace. * After the 3 minutes they will stop exercising and have their pulse rate taken straight away for another minute. * They will wait (standing up) for a further 4 minutes (taking the resting time to 5 minutes). * Will have their pulse rate taken once more for a minute to see if it has returned to its normal resting rate. * The remaining pupils will take it in turns to do this experiment. * I will repeat this experiment 3 times with each pupil, giving them sufficient time between the experiments to gain a normal resting pulse rate. I will record my results in 'beats per minute' (BPM), as I am recording how many times the pupil's pulse is beating in a minute. During this test I will have to think about how to make the tests fair, so there are things that I will make the pupils all do before and during the experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

gets gradually worse when she exercises, I expected this to affect her pulse rate making it increase a lot more than the others once she'd finished exercising. When I worked out their average increases after exercise I found that this wasn't what I found, in fact many of the other pupil's results were a lot higher in their increase than Sarah's. This is a possible abnormality as I was expecting to find that Sarah's pulse would rise higher than the others, there could be a few possible reasons for this not being the case, one of these is that her asthma is not invoked by exercise, rather by some other factor such as a dust allergy or hay fever. All of the pupils that I tested were of different heights and weights; this means that they all will have different ways in which their bodies will cope with the exercise, giving different increases and decreases in their pulse rates. If I were doing this experiment again I would have someone to help me with the timings, as I found it very hard to watch the stop clocks and count the pulse at the same time. Another thing that I could have done differently to gain better results would be to have taken more results, possibly every minute. This would mean that I would have more of accurate graphs and would see how the rates changed more clearly. Research Sources: Picture of veins/arteries http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/class/bio590/pictures/lect5/artery-vein.jpeg Picture of the heart http://www.savannahcardiology.com/images/heart_diagram.jpg Information for Biological Knowledge http://health.yahoo.com/health/encyclopedia/a.html http://www.smm.org/heart/lessons/lesson1.htm Microsoft Encarta 99 Name: Heinemann AVCE: Health and Social Care Student Book Author(s): Neil Moonie ISBN: 0 435 45589 3 Name: Heinemann GNVQ Advanced Health and Social Care Author(s): Neil Moonie ISBN: 0 435 45253 3 Name: Hodder Vocational A-level Health and Social Care Author(s): Hillary Thomson, Sylvia Aslangul, Caroline Holden, Carolyn Meggit ISBN: 0 340 77547 5 Name: Understanding Biology, for advanced level (third edition) Author(s): Glenn and Susan Toole ISBN: 0 7487 1718 8 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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