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The effect of increasing temperature on the solubility of two solids.

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Introduction

The effect of increasing temperature on the solubility of two solids Aim Question : What is the effect of increasing temperature on the solubility of (a) a Salt (b) a Sugar when they are placed in (1) Ethanol (2) Water. This is basically asking if solubility is proportional to the temperature of the solvent. The idea is to do it in ethanol and water with a salt and a sugar. This is to test the question in two different liquids (solvents) with two different solids (solutes) to reach a more accurate answer. Predictions Solubility is the number of grams of the solute that will dissolve in 100 g of the solvent. Some things may dissolve in water but not in other liquids and some things may dissolve in other liquids and not in water. Water is a polar solvent. Polar solvents are liquids whose molecules display a permanent dipole. A dipole has two oppositely charged poles (like a magnet). A molecule with a dipole is a molecule with a positive and a negative end. Ionic compounds are compounds that will split into two or more ions when placed in a liquid. Ions are particles that are positively charged (cations) or negatively charged (anions). Ionising liquids (polar liquids capable of dissolving ionic compounds) will dissolve ionic compounds well because they can pull both anions (with the positive ends of the molecules) ...read more.

Middle

If the temperature needed was lower than room temperature, the beaker had to be cooled. This was done by placing it in the freezer for a while (done at home). 5. When there was solid left on the bottom, which wouldn't dissolve, it meant the solution had become saturated (no more of the solute could dissolve). When the solution had become saturated at a particular temperature, the amount was recorded (correct to 5g) and another temperature was done. This made each result accurate to 5g. This process was repeated for both solutes (sugar and salt) at 5, 25, 45, 65, 85 �C This experiment was a fair test because * There was a constant amount of water in each beaker. * When the experiment was repeated, all the conditions were kept the same. Key factors which could influence the results were 1. The amount of water in each beaker. 2. The length of time each amount of solid was given to dissolve. (To save time in the next lesson, a beaker of sugar solution was left in a beaker inside a sealed bag. A week later there were organisms growing in it. They were white and filamentous. This obviously had to be thrown away.) Results SALT Temperature (�C) Solubility (g of solute per 100g of Solvent) Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Average 5 30 30 30 25 30 30 30 45 30 30 30 65 30 30 30 85 30 30 30 The first results seemed odd, so they were repeated. ...read more.

Conclusion

Because of this, it may mean that Sodium Chloride is very strongly ionic and can be broken down so easily by water. This would mean that the solution becomes completely saturated straight away. SUGAR On page 163 of 'Principles of Chemistry' it says : An ionizing solvent such as water, will not dissolve not only ionic substances but also substances of high polarity. Because sugar dissolves in water, it means that a sugar compound is a substance of high polarity. The effect of increasing temperature on the solubility of a sugar (Sucrose [C12H22O11] ) when placed in water (H2O) is a change in solubility. If the temperature is lowered the solubility gets less and if the temperature is raised the solubility rises. This is because the water molecules have more or less energy to move around and break the chemical bonds. When there is more energy, the molecules can break more of the bonds between the component particles in the compound. Improvements * A water bath could have been used to heat the beakers in. This would have allowed the contents to heat less rapidly. * The solid could have been added in smaller amounts (e.g. 2g). Or, the solid could have been added (in 5g lots) until the solution was saturated and then the rest of the salt in the last lot could be weighed. You could then take that amount away from 5g and it would give you a more accurate saturation point. * Using distilled water to cut out Na+ and Cl- ions. ...read more.

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