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The effect of temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction.

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Introduction

The effect of temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction Investigating the rate of Carbon Dioxide production when Calcium Carbonate reacts with Hydrochloric acid. Introduction: A reaction's rate can be influenced by a number of variables; the surface area of the reactants; whether or not there is a catalyst in the experiment; the concentration of the reactants and the temperature of the reactants. In this investigation I plan to find out about how the temperature affects the rate of a reaction. I will do this by changing the temperature of the hydrochloric acid and recording the rate at which carbon dioxide is produced in each experiment over a period of time. Plan for experiment: Apparatus: - For the experiment I will require: * A Buckner flask * A Glass syringe * 25ml measuring cylinder * 15x 25ml of Hydrochloric acid * 15x 2 grams of Calcium Carbonate * Stopwatch * Electric Scales (accurate to 2d.p.) * Thermometer Variables: There are several variables in this experiment, they include: * Size of Marble Chips (their surface area could affect the rate of reaction) ...read more.

Middle

I then recorded the amount gas produced every 20 seconds until the measuring syringe had filled up (at 100cm3). I then repeated the experiment three times for each of the 5 different temperatures of acids used and every time tried to make the conditions as similar as possible. This included measuring the starting temperature and volume of the acid every time and trying to get exactly the same weight of marble chips for each experiment. I would hope that this would mean that I had carried out a fair test. The main safety precaution I took was to wear eye-goggles throughout the experiment. This was because the hot acid, which is an irritant, was dangerous and could have easily splashed into my face. The teacher also took the precaution of heating the beakers of acid because the lab was too small and having a Bunsen burner for each group could have been dangerous. Other safety precautions I could have taken would be to wear a lab coat - to stop acid from damaging my clothes and to wear gloves to protect my hands. Conclusion: The graph shows that in accordance with my prediction, increasing the temperature also increased the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

The two sets of electric scales I used only gave measurements to 2 decimal places and may not have been exact because the petri-dish used to carry the marble chips would have affected the weight. The test should have been carried out in strictly controlled conditions; this means that fluctuations in temperature and pressure could not have affected the rate the reaction. Although three sets of results are acceptable, to make the conclusion of a better quality, I could have carried out the experiment again, which could give more comparison and would make a more accurate average. I could have also tried the experiment using a greater range of acid temperatures. This would have shown more precise lines on my graph. I feel that the evidence collected backs up my theory well. There is a strong correlation between the prediction and the results achieved. The results back up the conclusion made and show that my initial research, carried out in class time using 'Chemistry for you' and 'Thinking Chemistry' was also correct. Another route, in which I could have investigated changes to the rate of reaction further would be to change the variable in the experiment to either surface area of the marble chips, or the pressure in which the experiment takes place. Tom Scutt 11P1 ...read more.

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