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The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Year 11 Science Investigation (Chemistry) The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid Aim: The aim of this experiment is to determine whether the temperature affects the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid. To do this, I will cool or heat up hydrochloric acid at different temperatures (not above 60�C) and time the reaction between magnesium ribbon and the acid. I will then calculate the rate of the reaction. Introduction: In the reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid, the acid will react with the magnesium to produce magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. The equation for this reaction is: Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid = Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg(s) + 2HCl (aq) = MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Chemical reactions can only happen when the reactant particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) collide but not all collisions are successful in forming products. This is known as the collision theory. For the reaction to occur, the reactant particles must collide with enough energy. This energy is needed to break the bonds in the reactant particles (e.g. molecules) so that new bonds in the product molecules can be formed. This minimum amount of energy needed for the reaction to occur is called the activation energy. Prediction: I predict that as the temperature of hydrochloric acid increases, the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and acid increases. This is because increasing the temperature provides the particles with more energy to move faster (kinetic energy) and thus collide more often in a certain time. This will make it more likely that collisions result in a reaction, increasing the rate of reaction. However, since the reacting particles have more energy, more particles will have the energy to break the bonds. ...read more.

Middle

Volume of Hydrochloric Acid= 25cm� 2. Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid = 0.6 Molars Modification of Method: After this trial, I decided that the length of magnesium to use in my actual experiments is 1cm because changing the length to 2cm will not have much effect on the rate of reaction and that it may be wasteful if I use a larger piece. Therefore, I will change step 2 of my method to: 2. Using a ruler and a pair of scissors, measure and cut 21 strips* of 1cm magnesium ribbon. Each experiment will also be repeated 3 times to find an average. However, I will not plan to test how long it takes for the magnesium ribbon to react with the hydrochloric acid for 10�C because it takes too long. Instead, I will plan to test temperatures: 20�C, 25�C, 30�C, 35�C. 40�C, 45�C and 50�C. This means that I will change step 8 to: 8. Do procedures 1-7 for temperatures 20�C, 25�C, 30�C, 35�C. 40�C, 45�C, and 50�C and repeat the experiment 3 times to get an average reading to improve the reliability of my results. I will not change anything else in my original plan because my results seem to be accurate and reliable. It can be noticed from the table that as the temperature increases, the time for the magnesium ribbon to react with hydrochloric acid increases. Analysis: Results: Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid Proposed Temperature (�C) Actual Temperature Used (�C) Time for Mg to react (s) Average Rate of Reaction (/ s) Before Average After Average 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Constant Variables: 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

For example, I could measure the length of magnesium as accurately as possible and avoid wetting the apparatus (50ml beaker with 25cm� of acid) with water for each experiment to avoid minor errors in my results. The results could also be recorded more frequently (5 repeats) to increase the reliability and a bigger range of temperatures can be included with a 5�C interval e.g. 10�C, 15�C, 20�C, 25�C, 30�C, 35�C, 40�C, 45�C and 50�C. However, due to practical time constraints in taking the readings for my investigation, and some consequential problems relating to time extension, I could not in fact make these adjustments. A definite trend can be drawn from the results for this investigation but to ensure that this is a definite conclusion the ideal method for measuring accurately the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid with temperature is too collect the volume of hydrogen gas given off using a syringe. The volume of gas can be measured up to a certain time period and the initial rate of reaction can be calculated. This experiment could also be carried out by using data logging equipment. This is where computer based logging and monitoring equipment is set up to measure and record the actual temperature used, the volume of hydrogen gas produced, the time taken for the magnesium ribbon to react, and the rate of the reaction. However, the ideal method was not suitable for this investigation because this equipment was not available in the laboratory and it's too expensive. More time is also needed to time the reaction in order to calculate the rate. To extend my investigation, I could investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between magnesium and sulphuric acid. Other reactive metals and acids can also be used. ...read more.

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