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The Effect of the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid when reacting with Magnesium

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Introduction

The Effect of the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid when reacting with Magnesium Key Variables * Volume of Hydrochloric acid * Concentration of hydrochloric acid * Temperature * Surface area I have chosen these variables because they all have an effect on the rate of reaction. The independent variable is the concentration of hydrochloric acid. It is the variable that I will be changing and observing. The other variables will be kept constant throughout. Prediction I predict that if I increase the concentration of the hydrochloric acid then the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the magnesium will take place more quickly. This can be explained because of the following: The collision theory describes how the rate of reaction increases (the time taken for the magnesium ribbon to disappear when it is reacted with hydrochloric acid) when the concentration of HCL increases. The theory states that if, the more concentrated the reactants, the greater the number of collisions between particles increase. This also explains why the greatest rate of reaction is usually as soon as the reactants have been mixed, i.e. they are both at their highest concentrations. As the reaction continues, the concentration of the reacting substances decreases and so does the rate of reaction. We must consider what happens when a reaction takes place. ...read more.

Middle

It has been proven that the more concentrated the solution the faster the stain will disappear. The graph below shows A and B. The acid in A is twice as concentrated as in acid B. Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen Mg + 2HCL MgCl2 + H2 I didn't measure the volume of hydrogen in my experiment because a gas syringe wasn't available to me. These diagrams show how the reaction rate increases as the concentration increases: Apparatus * Six test tubes * Six strips of magnesium (2cm) * Test tube holder * Labels * Stopwatch * Hydrochloric acid (concentrations - 0.5m, 1.0m, 1.5m, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.0m) * Thermometer * Measuring cylinder Method Firstly I measured 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid, which had a concentration of 0.5m, using a measuring cylinder. Making certain that my eyes were protected using goggles. I poured the hydrochloric acid into a test tube, which I then labelled, and then I put it in a test tube holder. I then measured the temperature of the hydrochloric acid, using a thermometer, to keep the temperature of each different concentration the same, 21�C, ensuring a fair test. I then filled another five test tubes with 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid, but changing the concentration. I labelled all the test tubes as to keep check of which test tube held which concentration. ...read more.

Conclusion

However accurate I believed the experiment to be there was a result that didn't fit into the pattern. The curved line on the graph directly misses one point. The first set of results that I achieved supported the scientific knowledge collected, but when I did the second set of results I found they were very dissimilar - there was a great difference between the times of the reaction with the acid that had a concentration of 0.5m, I believe this was due to not sanding down the magnesium enough in the second attempt and poor observation skills and timing methods during the first attempt. When doing the second attempt the hydrochloric acid with a concentration of 1.25m produced an odd reaction time that did not fit in with the other results and perturbed the relationship slightly. This I believe to be due to poor sanding and bad timing methods. I think that I could have drawn a better conclusion had I repeated the experiment, because my results weren't entirely reliable. Due to the sanding down of the magnesium ribbons being inaccurate, the timing method being unreliable and my observation skills for withering slightly. Perhaps the experiment would have been more accurate and therefore had given a more reliable conclusion if I'd used the gas syringe method to measure the hydrogen gas given off, but it was not available to me. ?? ?? ?? ?? Leanne Flanagan ...read more.

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