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The effect of varying the concentration of the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Doron Hershkorn 10ww science coursework Chemistry "The effect of varying the concentration of the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid". Aim: The aim of this investigation is to find out the effect of concentration of acid, in the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast the reaction takes place. It is important to remember that a rapid reaction is completed in a short period of time. Some reactions are very fast, For example (the formation of silver chloride precipitate when silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid solutions are mixed).In this investigation we will test different concentrations of acid reacting with magnesium. Prediction: I predict that as the concentration of the hydrochloric acid increases, the time taken for the magnesium to disappear decreases. I predict that when the concentration of the hydrochloric acid doubles, the rate of the reaction doubles. Linking prediction to theory, Reaction rate and concentration: The collision theory describes how the rate of reaction increase (the time taken for the magnesium ribbon to disappear when it is reacted with hydrochloric acid) when the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases. The theory states that if the more concentrated the reactants, the greater the number of collisions between particles increase. This also explains why the greatest rate of reaction is usually as soon as the reactants have been mixed, As the reaction continues, the concentration of the reacting substances decrease and so does the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus: * Goggles * beaker * Clamp * Retort stand * Boss * Burette * Conical flask - with side arm * Bucket full of water * Stop clock * 50ml test tube * Magnesium ribbon * Hydrochloric acid Diagram: Method: To get the amount of magnesium and the amount of hydrochloric acid to use in the situation, we have to use an excess of acid so that all of the magnesium disappears. An equation for the reaction: Magnesium + hydrochloric acid >magnesium chloride + hydrogen Mg (s) + 2HCL (aq)> Mgcl2 (aq) + H2 (g) 1mole 2moles 1mole 1 mole so we can say that one mole of magnesium reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid. We know that the concentration of hydrochloric acid that we start with is 3 moles. * Collect all apparatus fill a plastic bowl of water and place the burette (50cm of water) up side down in the plastic bowl. * Using beakers and test tubes collect the correct amount of acid and water (see table) and place in conical flask with side arm. * Place side arm of conical flask in the bottom of the burette (be careful not to let any bubbles in or out of the burette.) * Place the 10cm of magnesium ribbon in the conical flask, put lid on the flask and start timing. ...read more.

Conclusion

Other factor which could have given me unreliable results could have been that the bung was not placed on the top of the side arm tube fast enough which allowed gas to escape. To improve the experiment I would find a way of attaching and releasing the magnesium inside the side arm tube above the acid (with a bung at the top of the side arm tube) so that the magnesium could be dropped into the acid without any gas being lost When the reaction takes place bubbles of H2 are given off ,which might stay around the magnesium which therefore reduces the surface area of the magnesium and so the acid cannot react properly so this effects the results, we could have controlled factors in the investigation better (e.g. the stirring of the solution because if this is not done properly it can lead to incorrect results), using larger concentrations of acid would give a bigger more accurate conclusion instead of just using 10ml test tubes use 1litre test tubes, this way graphs would be more spaced out and give an accurate form or curve Additional work, which could be carried out, is to repeat the experiment using, a wider range of temperatures. The investigation could also be extended to investigate other factors affecting the rate of reaction such as catalysts, the rate of reaction or particle size of the magnesium. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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