• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9

The effects of body position and incremental exercise on cardiovascular function

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Assignment Title: The effects of body position and incremental exercise on cardiovascular function. Introduction: It is through the cardiovascular system that a number of actions take place, like the transport of O2 and nutrients to tissues, and removal of waste and the regulation of temperature takes place. (Powers & Howley, 2001) People everyday are virtually in some form or another taking part in physical activity. Unknowingly to them this physical activity involves responses from the cardiovascular system to the actual physical activity. Responses that occur could be short-lived and slight, and can include a rise in heart rate (HR) whilst getting up from a chair and walking from one room to another. On the other hand, responses could be more specific, if a person took part in a marathon you could see a rise in blood flow directed to the active skeletal muscles (Foss & Keteyian, 1998). During exercise, factors like cardiac output, HR, diastolic and systolic blood pressure are all directly related to the intensity of the given activity performed and should be looked at. When looking at the heart and its myocardium (i.e. the cardiac muscle tissue which contracts to eject blood from the heart chambers.) performance (which is initiated by the sinoatrial SA node) we must look at stroke volume and HR. Cardiac output (Q) is the product of the HR and the stroke volume (SV) which is the amount of blood pumped by the ventricles in a single heartbeat. ...read more.

Middle

After taking these measurements the subject was required to wear a HR monitor (polar beat). A sphygmomanometer was then attached to the subjects arm. The subject was informed of the procedures that she was going to have her HR and BP recorded in three different body positions (i.e. sitting, standing, and lying), for recording BP please see lab manual page 25. The first stage would see the subject sit quietly for 3 minutes, the second stage required lying quietly for 3 minutes and the third stage required the subject to stand quietly for three minutes. The measurements of both the HR and BP were recorded in the final fifteen seconds of each stage. The results taken were recorded in a table provided and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated using the formula mentioned earlier. Practical Session 2: In the second practical session the subject, subject (b), was a healthy male aged 20, whose weight was 77.5kg, and height was 178cm. The subject was asked to do a two minute warm up at 50 watts on the cycle ergomometer (Monark) prior to the testing. After the warm up, the subject had to wear a HR monitor and a sphygmomanometer. For the test, the subject was required to for the first stage exercise for 4 minutes at 50 watts, the second stage exercise for 4 minutes at 100 watts and in the third stage exercise for 4 minutes at 150 watts. ...read more.

Conclusion

during incremental exercise increases gradually from 106 at 50 W, to 136 at 100 W and to 163 at 150 W. This increase in HR is caused by the active skeletal muscles demanding more oxygen, in turn seeing an increase in HR as to provide oxygenated blood to the muscles. During incremental exercise there is a rapid rise in SBP, this is illustrated in fig. 3 with an increase from 120 (mmHg) at 50 watts to 125 (mmHg) at 100 watts and finally with 140 (mmHg) at 150 watts. DBP however slightly decreases to 44 (mmHg) at 150 watts due to a decrease in peripheral resistance, that develops because of the vasodilatation of arterioles supplying blood to the active skeletal muscles. (Foss & Keteyian, 1998). Further issues can be examined regarding differences in heart rate between sex, (i.e. males and females). This can be seen in fig. 4, which provides data during incremental exercise in a females, subject (c), HR, compared to that of a males, subject (b), HR. In conclusion this experiment which was conducted in two practicals and provided data about the cardiovascular function and how it is affected by various factors, i.e. increases in HR due to an alteration in certain body positions and differences of the SBP and DBP due to the effects of incremental exercise has on the cardiovascular function and also how the cardiovascular system adapts to these changes whether it be body position or exercise intensity. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Artificial Cardiac Pacemakers

    5 star(s)

    and are only temporary solutions for heart problems.17 How Pacemakers Are Implanted Pacemakers are surgically planted internally, in the same position as the image shown below.18 Most often it is implanted beneath the collar bone, near the shoulder. Pacemaker surgery is considered minor, with few risks involved.19 There are risks

  2. Human biology short notes

    Allows sedimentation of the solid particles Activated sludge Process 4. Oxidation Tank * Oxygen is passed to airate the tank * Oxygen is needed for aerobic bacteria to become active * Bacteria digests harmful organic material in effluent (liquid) * Effluent is now free of harmful material 5.

  1. Ideal Position to Recover Resting Heart Rate- Lab. Does the physical positioning of ...

    84 76 72 68 71 Sitting 52 108 88 76 68 64 F Laying 64 120 100 88 84 84 2 Standing 64 116 88 80 80 76 73 Sitting 52 124 96 80 76 64 F Laying 64 116 100 92 84 80 3 Standing 60 132 100 88

  2. The aim of the experiment is to find out the effect exercise has on ...

    desks if any form of exercise is to be carried out safely. * Don't exercise if you have any health problems. * Keep a drink to stop dehydration. * Do the experiment under supervision of a teacher in case of an emergency.

  1. List the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, including the cardiac cycle and ...

    The greatest total cross-sectional area is found in the capillary network as there are so many capillaries, in the capillary network the velocity of the blood is only 0.1 cm/s, slow enough to allow exchange of gases, nutrients and waste products.

  2. Work related report

    Age There is no minimum age requirement or upper age limit for entry onto nursing programmes although some reports, suggest that teenagers as young as 15 can start training at the age of 15. Standard Procedures carried out by a nurse Standard procedures are a set of instructions scientists follow for nearly everything they do.

  1. human body system

    In the digestive system there are other parts of the body that help us as well like liver. Liver is place where bile is produced. Bile makes condition right for the enzymes in the small intestine. Gall bladder is where bile is stored, before it's injected into small intestine.

  2. The aim of my investigation is to measure the effects of BMI (body mass ...

    The pulse meter that we used in our experiment was not reliable as the result shown kept fluctuating so it was hard to get an accurate reading. I had used the most common result shown on the pulse meter as the final reading, making it a guess and not an actual reading.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work