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The effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory system

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Introduction

The effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory system Exercise uses up a lot of energy, which the cells derive from oxidizing glucose. Both glucose and oxygen have to be delivered by the blood. This means that the heart has to work harder to pump more blood through the body. This means it has to beat faster in order to achieve a higher throughput. The cardiovascular system responds to exercise by increasing the activity level. The adrenal gland increases the production of the hormones adrenaline and nor adrenaline. These have direct effects on the heart. These hormones cause an increase in the heart rate and the force with which the heart contracts each beat. ...read more.

Middle

The lungs also play an important part in all of this. Their primary role is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood with fresh air. This increases the amount of oxygen in the blood that comes to the lungs from the body and decreases the amount of carbondioxide in the blood. The lungs also increase their activity by increasing the number of breaths taken each minute and the amount of air taken in each breath. Together the increase in the activity of both these organ systems increases the amount of blood and oxygen supply to the body. The short term effects The short-term effects of exercise usually begin before the exercise has even begun. ...read more.

Conclusion

The maximum heart rate appears to be similar however, trained horses appear to be able to maintain stroke volume at high heart rates better than untrained animals, resulting in an increased performance capacity. The distribution of blood flow to skeletal muscles during exercise is assisted by an increase in the ramifications of blood vessels to fibre groups. This results in an increase in the maximal aerobic oxygen capacity of exercise-trained animals. Adaptation due to selective breeding has lead to a difference in the packed cell volume and oxygen carrying capacity of the 'hot blooded' breeds. Fit animals also appear to be able to move faster at the same maximal oxygen capacity. Athletic ability may also be related to the ability to tolerate increased levels of by-products such as lactic acid, which build up in the muscles during exercise, and affect anaerobic exercise capacity. ...read more.

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