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The Effects of Hydrochloric Acid on Rates of Reaction.

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Introduction

H/W 15/5/03 The Effects of Hydrochloric Acid on Rates of Reaction Aim: My aim is to find the effect of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) on the rate of reaction, when reacting with magnesium ribbons (Mg). Prediction: I predict that as the concentration of the hydrochloric acid increases, the time taken for the magnesium to disappear decreases. My prediction is that the higher the concentration of the acid then the higher the rate of the reaction will be. I can predict this by linking prediction to theory of 'Reaction rate and concentration.' I predict this because of the collision theory. I know that the higher the concentration of the acid, the greater the number of acid molecules present in that volume. This means that there are more acid molecules colliding with the particles on the surface of the reactant (magnesium) thus increasing the rate of reaction. Therefore, if I double the concentration of the acid from 1M hydrochloric acid to 2M hydrochloric acid then I will expect to see the rate of the reaction double. This is because there are twice as many acid particles in 2M hydrochloric acid than in 1M hydrochloric acid, so there will be twice the amount of collisions per second and because there are twice the amount of collisions per second then there will be twice as many successful collisions per second, increasing the rate of reaction. Hypothesis: Rate is a measure of how fast or slow something is. Rate is a measure of the change that happens in a single unit of time. Any suitable unit of time can be used - a second, a minute, an hour and even a day. The rates at which chemical reactions occur vary enormously. AN example of fast reactions is explosions (fireworks) and an example of slow reactions is rotting. To find the rate of reaction, you should measure one of the two things; the amount of reactant used up per unit of time or the amount of a product produced per unit of time. ...read more.

Middle

There will be several different concentrations of acid, which will give me a wide range of results, which will be reliable and reproducible. Equipment needed: * Hydrochloric acid - A reactant * Magnesium ribbons - A reactant * Conical flask - To house the reaction (with the magnesium and acid dilute in) * Trough - Containing an amount of water to act as a water bath * Rubber tube - for the reaction to travel down * Stop watch - To time the reaction * Acid - One of the main parts to the investigation (to vary the concentration). The concentrations I will be using are; 50 ml of HCl, 40 ml of HCl with 10 ml of H2O, 30 ml of HCl with 20 ml of H2O and finally, 10 ml of HCl with 40 ml of H2O. I have chosen not to use 50 ml of H2O, as this would take too long, as the reaction would be very slow. * Water (to dilute the acid) * Magnesium ribbons - the second most important part of the experiment (to react with the acid). Each ribbon will be 1.5 centimetres long. * A burette - With water up to ml (to show how fast the acid dissolves the magnesium ribbon) * Bung - to seal the top of the conical flask to ensure gas doesn't escape. Method: The experiment will be done using the equipment shown below. To begin with, set up all the apparatus in a safe position. Then I will make up the different concentrations of acid that I mentioned in the 'equipment' section. The acid will be measured in a measuring cylinder and then put into a conical flask. The water (if necessary) will be measured in the same way and added to the same conical flask as the acid. When I have set up all of the apparatus as required, I will cut a piece of magnesium ribbon to 1.5 centimetres long. ...read more.

Conclusion

activation energy are those particles which are moving, in the case of magnesium and hydrochloric acid, it is the hydrochloric acid particles which have to have the activation energy because they are the ones that are moving and bombarding the magnesium particles to produce magnesium chloride. The graph for 1/time had the form of an s curve and it did have some relationship with the other graph. Help on Analysis First three graphs were drawn (one for each time the whole experiment was carried out). So that the graphs did not become over crowded the curves were drawn on separate pieces of see through OHP film and overlaid each graph. Note: They have been attached all overlaid their appropriate graph but should be viewed one at a time overlaid the appropriate graph. A tangent was drawn at the beginning of each curve and its gradient calculated, the gradients are shown in the table below. The average gradient was calculated and then the gradients plotted on a graph. As the temperature increases so does the rate of reaction. Increasing the temperature increases the speed of the particles. The faster the particles move, the greater the number of collisions, and therefore the rate of the reaction increase. Chemical reactions take place by chance. Particles need to collide with enough velocity so that they react. As the temperature is increased the particles move faster since they have more energy. This means that they are colliding more often and more of the collisions have enough velocity to cause a reaction. Since there are more collisions the chemical reaction takes place faster. In my design I predicted that as the temperature increased the rate of reaction would increase. I predicted that for every 10OC increase in temperature the rate of reaction would double. I was correct that as the temperature increases so does the rate of reaction however the rate of reaction does not double for every 10 OC increase in temperature although it is a linear relationship. 1 ...read more.

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