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The Effects of Smoking On Health

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Introduction

THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON HEALTH Smoking is the act of inhaling the fumes of burning substances. It used to be men who mainly smoked pipes and cigars which involve little inhalation. Now a days the amount of young women and children smoking is on the increase although the overall amount of people who smoke is declining in most countries. There are thought to be around 4000 different chemical in a cigarette, many are toxic and 43 of them are carcinogens. The main substances in a cigarette are tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine. It is these three substances which cause the greatest threat to health causing damage to either the gaseous exchange or the cardiovascular system. Tar is dangerous because it settles on the lining of the airways in the lungs. In the 1950's it was found to cause changes that can cause lung cancer and lung disease. Lung disease causes the sufferer difficulty in breathing. This is caused by tiny particles settling in the depths of the lungs. These particles make the lungs more susceptible to air borne infections, such as pneumonia, influenza and allergic reactions. If these become very bad they can trigger asthma attacks and server coughing which causes damage to the alveoli. ...read more.

Middle

The tumour grows for round 20 or 30 years before the patient sees any symptoms, which is likely to be coughing up blood. By this time it is too late to cure the cancer as it has most likely spread to other parts of the body. Treatment can be given to prolong the life of the patient. Carbon dioxide is dangerous because it diffuses into the blood stream through the alveoli. It then diffuses into the red blood cells where it combines with the haemoglobin. This stops the haemoglobin from being fully oxygenated and limits the amount of oxygen it can carry to other parts of the body. Less oxygen is supplied to the heart muscles which puts strain on it. Carbon monoxide also causes damage to the lining of the arteries. Nicotine is the addictive substance in a cigarette. It is a drug that is absorbed quickly into the blood stream. It travels quickly to the brain where is stimulates the nervous system. It tells the nervous system to decrease the diameter of the arteries and release the hormone, adrenaline. This causes the heart rate to increase and decreases the supply of blood to the hands and feet. Nicotine also increases the risk of blood clotting because it increases the platelets "stickiness". ...read more.

Conclusion

There are three types of heart disease the first is Angina pectoris. This causes sever chest pains when exercising and is caused by the shortage of blood getting to the heart muscles. This does not cause any damage to the heart tissue. The second type of heart disease is a heart attack known as myocardial infarction when part of the coronary artery is obstructed by a blood clot. Part of the heart is then starved of oxygen and dies. This causes sudden server chest pains. A heart attack can be fatal if not treated immediately. The third type of heart disease is heart failure caused by a blockage of the main coronary artery. This weakens the heart muscle slowly and eventually it fails to pump efficiently. A stroke is another kind of heart disease caused by an artery in the brain to burst and leaks into the brain tissue or (most commonly) when a blockage is caused in the artery of the brain by a thrombosis. The brain tissue is starved or oxygen and nutrients because of the blockage and become damaged or die. Depending on the length of time the brain is starved on oxygen depends on how server the effects are. In the most server cases people may die, but it can also cause server disabilities including the use of limbs, their memory or the loss of ability to speak. Some of these effects can be treated or the brain naturally repairs its self. ...read more.

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Overall the candidate has demonstrated a good understanding of this topic, their essay is reasonable well written and they have provided a suitable amount detail. The candidate has attempted to introduce this topic, though their introduction still has some room ...

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Response to the question

Overall the candidate has demonstrated a good understanding of this topic, their essay is reasonable well written and they have provided a suitable amount detail. The candidate has attempted to introduce this topic, though their introduction still has some room for improvement. When writing your introductory paragraph you should state exactly what you plan to discuss so that the premise of your essay is clear. You should also think about ways in which you can engage the reader such as including an interesting fact that is relevant to your topic. This makes it more likely that the reader will read through all of your essay.

Level of analysis

The use of images can help you discuss topics that are difficult to visualise and they can help to demonstrate a point however the way in which the candidate has randomly included an image in the main body of the essay actually detracts from the information and makes the essay harder to follow. If you are going to include images in your essay then make sure that they are relevant and instead of placing between a paragraph, place them either after a paragraph or at the end of your essay. You also need to make sure that you provide any links to images you have taken from an online source. On another note the candidate could have improved the quality of their analysis had they taken the time to undergo independent research, they could have gone on to discuss scientific evidence that links smoking to heart disease and other health problems. When discussing causes for a particular disease it is important that you consider the available evidence, there are many factors that can lead to disease but the cause is often unclear. Taking the time to research your subject shows enthusiasm and dedication and the additional information that this allows you to discuss can make your essay more interesting. Finally, this essay comes to an abrupt end with no conclusion, you should always conclude an essay, this is important as it gives you the opportunity to leave the reader with a good impression of your work. When writing a conclusion you should summarise key points form your essay with reference to why these are important to your topic. You should also write some kind of personal response relating to your topic, for a science based piece of work this could simply be what you have learnt from writing your essay.

Quality of writing

The layout of this essay makes it a little difficult to read. You can avoid this by making sure that you use spaces between paragraphs and by ensuring that your paragraphs link together so that you are not just jumping form point to point. However the candidate has used appropriate terms throughout their work and there are no grammatical or spelling errors.


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