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The effects of temperature on the rate of reaction ofsodium thiosulphate with hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

The effects of temperature on the rate of reaction of sodium thiosulphate with hydrochloric acid Planning Background Chemical reactions occur when two or more reactants come into contact with each other. These reactants can produce one or more products and reactions can vary greatly depending on the reactants and the environments which they are in. For example some experiments are exothermic as they produce heat while others are endothermic as they cool their surroundings because they need the heat to react. Some reactions can take place in an unmodified environment e.g. room temperature, normal atmospheric pressure and normal light conditions while others do need these environmental factors changed in order for the experiment to actually happen. These surrounding conditions can also be changed in order to change the rate of reaction. There are other factors that can affect an experiment's rate of reaction and they are concentration, surface area and the presence of a catalyst. Temperature has a very large effect on many reactions. Increasing the temperature of either one or more of the reactants or the temperature in which the reaction is taking place will speed up any reaction. ...read more.

Middle

As dilution was needed for the reaction to take place at a suitable rate for measurement at the highest temperature the concentrations were tested at the highest temperature and the lowest temperature which was chosen to be room temperature and we decided that in the main experiment we would heat the sodium thiosulphate to 30�C, 40�C, 50�C, 60�C and 70�C. 37g/dm3 sodium thiosulphate was used. 50cm3 of this concentration was heated to 70�C and 5cm3 of the provided 1M hydrochloric acid was added but the reaction was too quick as was half sodium thiosulphate and half water (18.5 g/dm3) but that again was too quick and so we halved the concentration again to 9.25 g/dm3 and at 70�C that took just over 10 seconds to complete the reaction while at room temperature it took about 3 minutes. The main experiment therefore will use 50cm3 of 9.25g/dm3 sodium thiosulphate at room temperature, 30�C, 40�C, 50�C, 60�C and 70�C and 5cm3 of 1M hydrochloric acid. Plan to obtain accurate and fair evidence All variables except for the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate will be tried to keep the same for all reactions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Ways in which this experiment could be made more accurate would be to use a light sensor connected to a computer and for a light to be shining through a container in which the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid would be added. The light sensor would be placed and surrounded by black material to make sure that it only recorded light from the light shining through the reaction. A timer would be started on the computer and it would automatically stop when no light would be detected by the sensor as that would be when the reaction would be complete. An electric water bath could also be used for accurate heating of the sodium thiosulphate and maintenance of the temperature. Other factors affecting the rate of this reaction that would be quite interesting to investigate would be the variation of the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate or hydrochloric acid and a possible usage of a catalyst though I am not sure whether there is a catalyst that can affect this reaction and if not a different reaction could be used with a catalyst and the effects measured. Sources of information and diagrams http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/a1/activati.asp http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/eactivat.html Fig 1: University of Florida, http://server.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/2045_s99/ lectures/lec_f.html ...read more.

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