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The electro negativity of atoms

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Plan Apparatus The apparatus I will use to conduct the experiment are: * 1-clorobutane (1 mol) * 1-bromobutane (1 mol) * 1-idobutane (1mol) * Silver Nitrate (0.01 mol) * Ethanol * Water Bath (Heated to 50�C * Test tubes x3 * Test tube rack * Teat pipettes x3 * Burettes (1mm�) x2 * Pipette filler Method * Set up test tubes and test tube rack * Put 1 cm� of silver nitrate into the three test tubes using a burettes * Add ethanol(1cm�) with the other burette * Put test tubes in water bath (pre heated to 50�C) and leave for 10 minutes test tubes will be placed in water bath at the exact same time Safety To make my ...read more.


I will use a burette to mesure the silver nitrate and ethanol this should ensure accuracy in the volume. Human errors can affect the results; I could use a micropipette array and a data logger to take away the chance of human error, using a micropipette array would mean the halogenoalkanes are added at the time plus the drop size would be the same. The data logger will give more accurate representation of which reaction occurs fastest as you are not relying on eyesight and highly sensitive electronic equipment. Explanation Due to halogen atom i.e. chlorine, iodine and bromine being more electronegative than the carbon the carbon halogen bond is polarised the carbon atom is electron deficient and is liable to attack from nuceophiles with their lone-pair of electrons (e.g. ...read more.


C-Cl 340 C-Br 280 C-I 240 If I were to base the experiment on the electro negativity of atoms I would expect the 1-chlorobutane to react the fastest due to its high polarity (having more ability to attract electrons) the order I would expect is C-Cl first then C-Br and finally C-I but as the experiment is actually based on bond enthalpies 1-chlorobutane should take the longest to react as it has the highest bond enthalpy. Based on this table of bond enthalpies (right) I would expect 1-iodobutane would react fastest as it has a lower bond enthalpy thus easier for bonds to be broken the order I would expect them to react in is C-Cl, C-Br, C-I Aaron Evans 12CLG ...read more.

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