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The electrolysis of copper sulphate solution and copper electrodes

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Introduction

Introduction: For my GCSE Chemistry assessment I will be investigating the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution with the copper (ii) plates. Aim: My intention for this observation is to find out how the current has an effect on the mass of copper deposited in the electrolysis of copper sulphate and copper (ii) plates. Safety Precautions: In this investigation I will make sure that everything is as safe as possible and that there are no chances of accidents occurring. (1) I will wear safety glasses and a lab coat to avoid any danger. (2) I will tie my hair back, which will prevent any accidents from occurring. (3) I will keep the area around me clear to prevent any accidents from occurring. (4) Benches should be tucked under the table so that nobody trips over. (5) As copper sulphate indicates the symbol, which means toxic, I will be careful that it is kept away from my skin and I am not able to smell it. The reason for this is that it can cause death. (6) Copper sulphate will be placed in the tray at all times so that if it spills it will only spill in the tray. ...read more.

Middle

That means that how much the anode has lost the cathode should have gained. The anode is positively charged ions, and the cathode are negatively charged ions. The ions in the anode are called the anions, and in the cathode they are called the cations. From my research I have found out that in the 1830's a famous scientist called Michael Faraday was the first to find out about electrolysis. Therefore the Faraday's first law says: The quantity of electricity passed is proportional to the amount of substance discharged at an electrode. The amount of electricity that flows is measured in coulombs (C). I have also learned that every one amp of current passes one coulomb of charge every second. Therefore the equations for this is: Quantity of electricity (charge)=current X time Coulombs= amps X seconds I have found out that as the electric current passes through electrolyte solution, the chemical reaction will take place at both the cathode and anode. The equations for the reaction with copper(ii) plates and copper sulphate solution are: Ions present: CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO42- At cathode (-): Cu2+ ions are attracted Cu2+ + 2e- Cu : this is a reduction reaction. At anode (+): The atoms of the copper lose two electrons and dissolve into the solution. ...read more.

Conclusion

(7) Thereafter in the oven I will dry the cathode and weigh it. (8) I will be repeating this procedure for 0.4A, 0.6A, 0.8A and 1.0A Each experiment will be done at least three times. Results: Current (amps) Mass at cathode (grams) Average change in mass (grams) 1st test 2nd test Start: 36.85 37.55 0.2 36.90 0.05 37.59 0.04 0.05 04 37.00 0.10 37.67 0.08 0.09 0.6 37.14 0.14 37.79 0.12 0.13 0.8 37.33 0.19 37.98 0.19 0.19 1.0 37.55 0.22 38.23 0.25 0.24 Results: I know that this is a straight line graph and that the gradient is positive by looking at the graph. I can now interpret from this graph that this investigation matches the law of Michel Faraday, the first law that I mentioned in the scientific background knowledge is: The quantity of electricity passed is proportional to the amount of substance discharged at an electrode. This law infant matches my results that I have gained, I can now confidently say that the results that I obtained were accurate. As I increased the voltage and the current there was a larger mass in the cathode. Therefore this proves that my prediction which I made is correct: As the current increases the amount of copper deposited will also increase. In this electrolysis both the oxidation and reduction reactions have been used, the oxidation in the anode and the reduction in the cathode. ...read more.

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